Abstract

Single crystals of (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5:Sm (0.5 at%) with x = 0.19 (81% Gd3+) and x = 0.11 (89% Gd3+) belonging respectively to the C2/c and P21/c space groups were grown by the Czochralski method under nitrogen atmosphere. Detailed investigation of their spectroscopic properties were performed with the aim of understanding the effect of structural modification on emission characteristics of incorporated Sm3+ ions with a special attention directed to a laser potential associated with yellow emission line. It was inferred from low temperature optical spectra that almost all emission intensity in the host with C2/c symmetry comes from one of two available Sm3+ sites, whereas two Sm3+ sites contribute to emission in the host with P21/c symmetry. Excitation spectra of Sm3+ emission recorded in the VUV-UV region between 100 nm and 350 nm made it possible to locate the energy of CT transition at about 6.11 eV and to assess the low energy limit for the 4f5→ 4f45d1 transitions of Sm3+ to about 6.81 eV. It implies that in the two systems studied these energies are advantageously high thereby preventing the contribution of intense allowed transitions to an adverse excited state absorption of both blue pump radiation and yellow emission. Experiments of optical amplification of yellow emission were performed employing a pump-and-probe technique in order to verify this implication. It was found that for a LGSO:Sm3+ crystal having the C2/c symmetry an increase of the pump power density from 20 mJ/cm2 to 50 mJ/cm2 at a constant power probe density of 150 μW/cm2 brings about a positive gain growing from about 0.25 to 2 [cm−1]. In the same conditions a maximum gain value of 1 cm−1 was measured for LGSO:Sm3+ crystal having the P21/c symmetry. It was concluded that the former system is promising for the design of all-solid-state yellow lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. L. Melcher and J. S. Schweitzer, “A promising new scintillator: cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 314(1), 212–214 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Felsche, “The crystal chemistry of the rare-earth silicates,” Structure and Bonding 13, 99–197 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Dorenbos, “Systematic behaviour in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(49), 8417–8434 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

P. Dorenbos, “Systematic behaviour in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(49), 8417–8434 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. L. Melcher and J. S. Schweitzer, “A promising new scintillator: cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 314(1), 212–214 (1992).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. Felsche, “The crystal chemistry of the rare-earth silicates,” Structure and Bonding 13, 99–197 (1973).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumer, V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baumer, V. N.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Belikov, K.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belikov, K. N.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berkowski, M.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bondar, V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bondar, V. G.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borel, C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Capuj, N. E.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cavalli, E.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daldosso, N.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Danger, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davolos, M. R.

A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
[Crossref]

de Camargo, A. S. S.

A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diduszko, R.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

Domukhovski, V.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Dorenbos, “Systematic behaviour in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(49), 8417–8434 (2003).
[Crossref]

Drozdowski, M.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Druon, F.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Felsche, J.

J. Felsche, “The crystal chemistry of the rare-earth silicates,” Structure and Bonding 13, 99–197 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ferrand, B.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Galtayries, A.

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

García, C.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garrido, B.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gektin, A.

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Glowacki, M.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gonzales-Perez, S.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gourbilleau, F.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grinyov, B.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grynyov, B. V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hang, L.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haro-Gonzales, P.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jacquemet, C.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jacquemet, M.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Janel, N.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Katrunov, K.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirm, M.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kurtsev, D.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kurtsev, D. A.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lahoz, F.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lavrishchev, S. V.

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lisiecki, R.

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Loutts, G. B.

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Martin, I. R.

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Melcher, C. L.

C. L. Melcher and J. S. Schweitzer, “A promising new scintillator: cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 314(1), 212–214 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

Melchiorri, M.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Minkov, B. I.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moncorge, R.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mori, K.

K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, M.

K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, H.

K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nunes, L. A. O.

A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pellegrino, P.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petit, J.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pidol, L.

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pucker, G.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rizk, R.

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

Runka, T.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sandrock, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schweitzer, J. S.

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. L. Melcher and J. S. Schweitzer, “A promising new scintillator: cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 314(1), 212–214 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shalapska, T.

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, Ch.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shtitelman, Z. V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sidletskiy, O.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Solarz, P.

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

Souriau, J. C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Starzhinsky, N.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Starzhinsky, N. G.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stryganyuk, G.

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Strzep, A.

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

Studenikin, P. A.

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tarasenko, O.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tarasov, V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tarasov, V. A.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tkachenko, S. A.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tombrello, T. A.

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

True, M.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Viana, B.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vielhauer, S.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vivien, D.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Voloshinovskii, A.

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wyon, Ch.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zelenskaya, O.

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zelenskaya, O. V.

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zimmerer, G.

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 285–297 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Lisiecki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, and M. Głowacki, “Optical spectra and luminescence dynamics of the Dy-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 337–346 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Strzęp, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Berkowski, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Sm3+ in Gd2SiO5 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106(1), 85–93 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Crystallogr. Rep. (1)

O. Sidletskiy, V. G. Bondar, B. V. Grynyov, D. A. Kurtsev, V. N. Baumer, K. N. Belikov, Z. V. Shtitelman, S. A. Tkachenko, O. V. Zelenskaya, N. G. Starzhinsky, and V. A. Tarasov, “Growth of LGSO: Ce crystals by the Czochralski method,” Crystallogr. Rep. 54(7), 1256–1260 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Haro-Gonzales, I. R. Martin, F. Lahoz, S. Gonzales-Perez, E. Cavalli, and N. E. Capuj, “Optical amplification in Er3+-doped transparent Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystal at 850 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113108 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

O. Sidletskiy, V. Bondar, B. Grinyov, D. Kurtsev, V. Baumer, K. Belikov, K. Katrunov, N. Starzhinsky, O. Tarasenko, V. Tarasov, and O. Zelenskaya, “Impact of Lu/Gd ratio and activator concentration on structure and scintillation properties of LGSO:Ce crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 601–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. V. Lavrishchev, Yu. D. Zavartsev, and P. A. Studenikin, “„Czochralski growth and characterization of (Lu1−xGdx)2SiO5 single crystals for scintillators,” J. Cryst. Growth 174(1-4), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (3)

N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, V. P. Mikhailov, B. I. Minkov, T. Danger, T. Sandrock, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy, excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Pr3+-doped Gd2SiO5 and Y2SiO5 crystals,” J. Lumin. 71(1), 27–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Dorenbos, T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, A. Gektin, and A. Voloshinovskii, “Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 633–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, G. Pucker, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optical losses and gain in silicon-rich silica waveguides containing Er ions,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 249–255 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (4)

P. Dorenbos, “Systematic behaviour in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(49), 8417–8434 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Yan, G. Zhao, L. Su, X. Xu, L. Hang, and J. Xu, “„Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Yb:GSO single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(4), 1325–1333 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. S. S. de Camargo, M. R. Davolos, and L. A. O. Nunes, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ in the two crystallographic sites of Gd2SiO5,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(12), 3353–3363 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, B. Liu, Ch. Shi, M. Kirm, M. True, S. Vielhauer, and G. Zimmerer, “Luminescent properties of Gd2SiO5 powder doped with Eu3+ under VUV–UV excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(7), 1217–1224 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

M. Głowacki, G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, A. Strzęp, T. Runka, M. Drozdowski, V. Domukhovski, R. Diduszko, and M. Berkowski, “Growth conditions, structure, Raman characterization and optical properties of Sm-doped (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Solid State Chem. 186, 268–277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “UV and gamma-ray excited luminescence of cerium-doped rare earth oxyorthosilicates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 320(1-2), 263–272 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

C. L. Melcher and J. S. Schweitzer, “A promising new scintillator: cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 314(1), 212–214 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 μm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ cw laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5-6), 356–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

K. Mori, M. Nakayama, and H. Nishimura, “Role of the core excitons formed by 4f-4f transitions of Gd3+ on Ce3+ scintillation in Gd2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165206 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Pidol, B. Viana, A. Galtayries, and P. Dorenbos, “Energy levels of lanthanide ions in a Lu2Si2O7 host,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Structure and Bonding (1)

J. Felsche, “The crystal chemistry of the rare-earth silicates,” Structure and Bonding 13, 99–197 (1973).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram for Sm3+ ions. Right arrows indicate excitation wavelengths in VIS region, while left arrows emission transitions observed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of survey absorption spectra recorded in the UV-visible region for (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5:Sm3+ crystals with x = 0.11 and x = 0.19

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of emission cross sections recorded for (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5:Sm3+ crystals with x = 0.11 and x = 0.19. Values of emission cross section was obtained using Fuchtbauer – Ladenburg equation. For caclulation experimental values of branching ratios was taken.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-resolution emission spectra of (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5:Sm3+ crystals with different content of Gd3+ ions. Spectra were obtained at 5 K under the direct excitation of Sm3+ ions with 405 nm wavelength and normalized to the strongest line at about 600 nm. The asterisks indicate the 0-0 lines of the 4G5/26H5/2 transition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polyhedrons of Lu1 and Lu2 in Lu2SiO5 structure (right picture) and of Gd1 and Gd2 in Gd2SiO5 structure (left picture). Interatomic distances are in angstrom (Å).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical lines of the 8S7/26PJ absorption bands of Gd3+ ions in LGSO lattice with the C2/c (x = 0.19) and P21/c structures (x = 0.11). T = 5 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Excitation spectra of (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5:Sm3+ crystals with x = 0.11 and x = 0.19 excited by synchrotron radiation at 12 K (dotted lines) and 300 K (solid lines) registered under monitoring samarium luminescence at 610 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Emission spectra of Sm3+ in the LGSO crystals having the LSO- and GSO-type symmetry (x = 0.19 and 0.11, respectively) registered at 12 K under different wavelengths of synchrotron radiation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Emission spectra of the 4G5/26H7/2 transition of Sm3+ in (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 (x = 0.19) crystal having the LSO-type of symmetry. The red line describes emission of the crystal under pump excitation (Epump) at 473 nm. Black line is emission spectrum of probe (Eprobe). The blue describes its emission under pump excitation at 473 nm and probe at 600 nm after substraction of black line (Epump + probe – Eprobe). The differecnce between blue and red spectra shows signal enchancement.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temporal dependence of the gain obtained for Sm3+ in (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 (x = 0.19) after pulsed excitation at 473 nm and detecting at 596 nm. The red (dotted) curve was obtained with a pump energy density of 50 mJ/cm2 and the blue (solid) curve with 20 mJ/cm2

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical gain as a function of the pump energy density from 20 mJ/cm2 to 50 mJ/cm2 with a probe density of 150 μW/cm2. The continuous lines are guide for the eye.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral position and energy of the lowest 5d-state of Ce3+ and Sm3+ in Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Gd2SiO5 (GSO) and (LuxGd1-x)2SiO5 (LGSO) hosts.

Equations (4)

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SE= I pp I p I probe
I probe = I 0 e αL
I pp = I p + I 0 e (gα)L
SE= e gL

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