Abstract

The diffusion of titanium in TiO2-SiO2 glasses with up to 7 mol% TiO2 was investigated by annealing doped layers on the inner surface of quartz glass tubes between 1700 and 2000°C and measuring radial doping profiles via X-ray microprobe analysis and refractive index profiling subsequent to the tube collapse. By comparison with calculated profiles, diffusion coefficients were able to be determined and fitted with an Arrhenius function. Both the preexponential D0 = 10(0.56 + 0.51c) cm2∙s−1 and the activation energy E = (473 + 11.6∙c) kJ∙mol−1 increase with increasing molar concentration of titanium c.

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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2-SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747–4751 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. D. L. Evans, “Glass structure: The bridge between the molten and crystalline states,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 115–128 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. B. Rosenthal, S. H. Garofalini, “Molecular dynamics study of amorphous titanium silicate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(1), 65–72 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).
  25. O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

2008

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

2005

J. E. Shelby, “Density of TiO2-doped vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 46, 494–499 (2005).

2004

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, “Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234–238 (2004).

2002

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. S. Henderson, M. E. Fleet, “The structure of titanium silicate glasses investigated by Si K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211(3), 214–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2-SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747–4751 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Laczka, L. Stoch, “Synthesis, structure and electron spectra of fused quartz doped with titanium, cerium and neodymium,” Glastech. Ber. 61, 218–222 (1988).

A. B. Rosenthal, S. H. Garofalini, “Molecular dynamics study of amorphous titanium silicate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(1), 65–72 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. L. Evans, “Glass structure: The bridge between the molten and crystalline states,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 115–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gu, “Spectroscopic properties of doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 337–345 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

H.-R. Müller, U. Röpke, “Preform index profiling with high spatial resolution,” Phys. Status Solidi A 66(2), K161–K164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. C. Schultz, “Binary titania-silica glasses containing 10 to 20 wt% TiO2,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59(5-6), 214–219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. S. Carson, R. D. Maurer, “Optical attenuation in titania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 11(4), 368–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Armellini, C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baba, N.

Balk, P.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baten, J.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carson, D. S.

D. S. Carson, R. D. Maurer, “Optical attenuation in titania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 11(4), 368–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clasen, R.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, K.

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deller, K.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dellith, J.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, Ch. Teichmann, “Diffusion coefficients of boron in vitreous silica at high temperatures,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 534–547 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, “Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234–238 (2004).

Emmerichs, U.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. L.

D. L. Evans, “Glass structure: The bridge between the molten and crystalline states,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 115–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ewert, S.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fleet, M. E.

G. S. Henderson, M. E. Fleet, “The structure of titanium silicate glasses investigated by Si K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211(3), 214–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, S.

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garofalini, S. H.

A. B. Rosenthal, S. H. Garofalini, “Molecular dynamics study of amorphous titanium silicate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(1), 65–72 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Greegor, R. B.

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grunthaler, P. J.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

Z. Gu, “Spectroscopic properties of doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 337–345 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2-SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747–4751 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gusakova, H. K.

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

Henderson, G. S.

G. S. Henderson, M. E. Fleet, “The structure of titanium silicate glasses investigated by Si K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211(3), 214–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hornfeck, M.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, Ch. Teichmann, “Diffusion coefficients of boron in vitreous silica at high temperatures,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 534–547 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, “Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234–238 (2004).

Knappe, B.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

Komarova, L. A.

O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Laczka, M.

M. Laczka, L. Stoch, “Synthesis, structure and electron spectra of fused quartz doped with titanium, cerium and neodymium,” Glastech. Ber. 61, 218–222 (1988).

Lebedeva, P. B.

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

Leko, V. K.

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Licht, A.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, F. W.

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mangold, H.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, R. D.

D. S. Carson, R. D. Maurer, “Optical attenuation in titania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 11(4), 368–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mazurin, O. V.

O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

Montagna, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moser, E.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.-R.

H.-R. Müller, U. Röpke, “Preform index profiling with high spatial resolution,” Phys. Status Solidi A 66(2), K161–K164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, N.

Offenberg, M.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oswald, M.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paul, M. C.

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pawlova, G. A.

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rolli, R.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ronchin, S.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Röpke, U.

H.-R. Müller, U. Röpke, “Preform index profiling with high spatial resolution,” Phys. Status Solidi A 66(2), K161–K164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, A. B.

A. B. Rosenthal, S. H. Garofalini, “Molecular dynamics study of amorphous titanium silicate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(1), 65–72 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Sandstrom, D. R.

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2-SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747–4751 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sawanobori, N.

Scheffel, A.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, Ch. Teichmann, “Diffusion coefficients of boron in vitreous silica at high temperatures,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 534–547 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

Schneider, G.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P.

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P. C.

P. C. Schultz, “Binary titania-silica glasses containing 10 to 20 wt% TiO2,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59(5-6), 214–219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sen, R.

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, J. E.

J. E. Shelby, “Density of TiO2-doped vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 46, 494–499 (2005).

Soga, N.

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stoch, L.

M. Laczka, L. Stoch, “Synthesis, structure and electron spectra of fused quartz doped with titanium, cerium and neodymium,” Glastech. Ber. 61, 218–222 (1988).

Tanaka, K.

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teichmann, Ch.

Tosello, C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, Ch. Teichmann, “Diffusion coefficients of boron in vitreous silica at high temperatures,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 534–547 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, “Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234–238 (2004).

Wei, P. S. P.

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J.

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zampedri, L.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Baten, M. Offenberg, U. Emmerichs, P. Balk, P. J. Grunthaler, S. Ewert, “Diffusion of cobalt and titanium in SiO2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 39(1-4), 266–272 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc.

R. Clasen, A. Licht, M. Oswald, K. Deller, M. Hornfeck, H. Mangold, G. Schneider, “Near net-shape SiO2-TiO2-glass compacts with reduced thermal expansion,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 23, 61–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fizika i Khimiya Stekla

V. K. Leko, P. B. Lebedeva, H. K. Gusakova, G. A. Pawlova, “Investigation of viscosity of titaniumsilicate glass,” Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 1, 174–176 (1975).

Glastech. Ber.

M. Laczka, L. Stoch, “Synthesis, structure and electron spectra of fused quartz doped with titanium, cerium and neodymium,” Glastech. Ber. 61, 218–222 (1988).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

P. C. Schultz, “Binary titania-silica glasses containing 10 to 20 wt% TiO2,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59(5-6), 214–219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2-SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747–4751 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett.

K. Hirao, K. Tanaka, S. Furukawa, N. Soga, “Anomalous temperature dependence of the sound velocities of SiO2-TiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(10), 697–699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, “Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234–238 (2004).

D. R. Sandstrom, F. W. Lytle, P. S. P. Wei, R. B. Greegor, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Coordination of Ti in TiO2-SiO2 glass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 41(2), 201–207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, F. W. Lytle, D. R. Sandstrom, J. Wong, P. Schultz, “Investigation of TiO2-SiO2 glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 55(1), 27–43 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Evans, “Glass structure: The bridge between the molten and crystalline states,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 115–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Rosenthal, S. H. Garofalini, “Molecular dynamics study of amorphous titanium silicate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(1), 65–72 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gu, “Spectroscopic properties of doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1-3), 337–345 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Carson, R. D. Maurer, “Optical attenuation in titania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 11(4), 368–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Henderson, M. E. Fleet, “The structure of titanium silicate glasses investigated by Si K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211(3), 214–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Mazurin, V. K. Leko, L. A. Komarova, “Crystallization of silica and titanium oxide – silica corning glasses (codes 7940 and 7917),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(1), 1–9 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

M. C. Paul, R. Sen, S. K. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, “Chemistry of titanium incorporation in silica glass of optical preform for making of Ti doped optical fibre by the MCVD process,” Opt. Mater. 30(10), 1538–1548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er- doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1151–1166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol

S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, “Diffusion in Yb2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. 52, 41–46 (2011).

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol

J. E. Shelby, “Density of TiO2-doped vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 46, 494–499 (2005).

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, B. Knappe, J. Dellith, “Diffusion in binary GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 48, 129–133 (2007).

Phys. Status Solidi A

H.-R. Müller, U. Röpke, “Preform index profiling with high spatial resolution,” Phys. Status Solidi A 66(2), K161–K164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

I, Barin, Thermodynamic Data of Pure Substances (VCH, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial concentration profiles of the TiO2 concentration c, initial (─ • ─ • ─), measured (────), calculated (─ ─ ─), ρ*: radius in the collapsed rod. 0 : initial ( D · t = 0 ) ( D · t = 0 ) 1 : unannealed sample ( D · t = 1 . 96 μ m 2 ) ( D · t = 5 .0 3 μ m 2 ) 2 : annealed sample ( D · t = 1 0. 9 0 μ m 2 ) ( D · t = 22 . 4 0 μ m 2 )

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial concentration profile of the TiO2 concentration c, initial (─ • ─ • ─), measured (────), calculated (─ ─ ─), ρ*: radius in the collapsed rod. 0 : initial ( D · t = 0 ) 1 : unannealed sample ( D · t = 1 . 12 μ m 2 ) 2 : annealed sample ( D · t = 22 . 5 0 μ m 2 )

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial refractive index profil, Δn: difference to SiO2, ρ*: radius in the collapsed rod.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determined diffusion coefficients according to Eqs. (3)-(6), one error bar is shown as an example, ● annealing under O2 ● annealing under He/ O2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coefficients of titanium diffusion (x) in amorphous SiO2 according to [18] in comparison with the present study for 0.5 and 5 mol% TiO2 and 50 mol% TiO2 calculated according to Eqs. (3)-(6).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffusion coefficients in binary glasses at 1800°C: + Ti in TiO2-SiO2, (this work), B in B2O3-SiO2 [10], Ge in GeO2-SiO2 [8], (c: concentration of TiO2, BO1.5, and GeO2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Activation energy in binary glasses: Ti in TiO2-SiO2, (this work), B in B2O3-SiO2 [10], Ge in GeO2-SiO2 [8], (c: concentration of TiO2, BO1.5 and GeO2).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c t = 1 ρ ρ ( D ρ c ρ )
D ( T , c ) = D 0 ( c ) exp ( E ( c ) / R T )
lg D = A ( T ) + c x B ( T ) = A 0 + A 1 / T + c x ( B 0 + B 1 / T )
x = 1.00
A ( T ) = 0.560 24720 / T
B ( T ) = 0.508 606 / T
M A D = ( 1 / n ) | lg D exp lg D a d j |
D 0 = 10 ( 0.560 + 0.508 c ) c m 2 s 1
E = ( 473 + 11.6 c ) k J m o l 1

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