Abstract

We report that an asymmetric bent dimer, consisting of a rod mesogen and a cholesterol mesogen linked by a flexible spacer with 9 carbon atoms, was found to form blue phases with a record-wide temperature range. Moreover, highly stable, fast electro-optic switching is possible. In addition to the stable Kerr effect, the electrostriction effect was also observed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

C. Meyer, G. R. Luckhurst, I. Dozov, “Flexoelectrically driven electroclinic effect in the twist-bend nematic phase of achiral molecules with bent shapes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chen, J. H. Porada, J. B. Hooper, A. Klittnick, Y. Shen, M. R. Tuchband, E. Korblova, D. Bedrov, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, “Chiral heliconical ground state of nanoscale pitch in a nematic liquid crystal of achiral molecular dimers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(40), 15931–15936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shibayama, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Dendron-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases with an enlarged controllable range of the photonic band for tunable photonic devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(19), 2387–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, H. Kikuchi, M. Ozaki, “Electro-optics of cubic and tetragonal blue phase liquid crystals investigated by two-beam interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (11)

Y. Sasaki, K. V. Le, S. Aya, M. Isobe, H. Yao, C. C. Huang, H. Takezoe, K. Ema, “High-resolution calorimetric study of phase transitions in chiral smectic-C liquid crystalline phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(6), 061704 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened BPs by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Lee, Z. Lu, P. A. Henderson, M. F. Achard, W. A. K. Mahmood, G.-Y. Yeap, C. T. Imrie, “Cholesteryl-based liquid crystal dimers containing a sulfur–sulfur link in the flexible spacer,” Liq. Cryst. 39(2), 259–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Fukuda, “Stabilization of blue phases by the variation of elastic constants,” Phys. Rev. E. 85, 020701 (2012).

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, A. Yoshizawa, “U-shaped oligomers with a molecular biaxiality stabilizing blue phases,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(2), 315–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Kim, “Low voltage and high transmittance polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal device by combined in-plane and oblique electric field along the horizontal direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072201 (2012).

A. Yoshizawa, “Liquid crystal supermolecules stabilizing an optically isotropic phase with frustrated molecular organization,” Polym. J. 44(6), 490–502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, L. Yu, X. Xiao, Z. Wang, P. Yang, W. He, H. Yang, “Effects of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different rigid cores on the thermal and electro-optical performances of liquid crystalline blue phases,” Liq. Cryst. 39(5), 629–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (13)

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Hur, M.-J. Gim, H.-J. Yoo, S.-W. Choi, H. Takezoe, “Investigation for correlation between elastic constant and thermal stability of liquid crystalline blue phase I,” Soft Matter 7(19), 8800–8803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, D. Yang, Q. Li, “Thermally, photochemically and electrically switchable reflection colors from self-organized chiral bent-core liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(7), 2098–2103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ocak, B. Eilgin-Eran, M. Prehm, S. Schymura, J. P. F. Lagerwall, C. Tschierske, “Effects of chain branching and chirality on liquid crystalline phases of bent-core molecules: blue phase, de Vries transitions and switching of diastereomeric states,” Soft Matter 7(18), 8266–8280 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kogawa, T. Hirose, A. Yoshizawa, “Biphenyl derivative stabilizing blue phases,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(47), 19132–19137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, “Microsecond linear optical response in the unusual nematic phase of achiral bimesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Henderson, C. Imrie, “Methylene-linked liquid crystal dimers and the twist-bend nematic phase,” Liq. Cryst. 38(11-12), 1407–1414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oo, T. Mizunuma, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Effects of monomer/liquid crystal compositions on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Op. Mater. Exp. 1(8), 1502–1510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

P. M. Weaver, M. G. Cain, M. Stewar, “Temperature dependence of high field electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric ceramics,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(16), 165404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sathyanarayana, M. Mathew, V. S. S. Sastry, B. Kundu, K. V. Le, H. Takezoe, S. Dhara, “Splay bend elasticity of a bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 010702 (2010).

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, S.-T. Hur, H. Higuchi, K. Song, S.-W. Choi, H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phase I observed for a bent-core molecule and its electro-optical performance,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(28), 5813–5816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Taushanoff, K. V. Le, J. Williams, R. J. Twieg, B. K. Sadashiva, H. Takezoe, A. Jakli, “Stable amorphous blue phase of bent-core nematic liquid crystals doped with a chiral material,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(28), 5893–5898 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, Y. Kogawa, K. Kobayashi, Y. Takanishi, J. Yamamoto, “A binaphthyl derivative with a wide temperature range of a blue phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(32), 5759–5764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Iwamochi, A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in blue phases induced using a binary system of a T-shaped nematic liquid crystal and a chiral compound,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 111801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Kundu, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, “Anomalous temperature dependence of elastic constants in the nematic phase of binary mixtures made of rodlike and bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sato, A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. V. Yelamaggad, I. S. Shashikala, G. Liao, D. S. S. Rao, S. K. Prasad, Q. Li, A. Jakli, “Blue Phase, Smectic Fluids, and Unprecedented Sequences in Liquid Crystal Dimers,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6100–6102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, “Stabilizing the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6 Pt 1), 061706 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases at work!” ChemPhysChem 7(1), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, K. Tozaki, H. Hayashi, H. Inaba, “Nano-watt stabilized DSC and ITS applications,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 79(3), 605–613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, M. Sato, J. Rokunohe, “A blue phase observed for a novel chiral compound possessing molecular biaxiality,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(32), 3285–3290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Coles, M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Hori, M. Iimuro, A. Nakao, H. Toriumi, “Conformational diversity of symmetric dimer mesogens, α,ω-bis(4,4’-cyanobiphenyl)octane, -nonane, α,ω -bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yloxycarbonyl)propane, and–hexane in crystal structures,” J. Mol. Struct. 699(1-3), 23–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(4), 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Memmer, “Liquid crystal phases of achiral banana-shaped molecules: a computer simulation study,” Liq. Cryst. 29(4), 483–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. Dozov, “On the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the mesophases of achiral banana-shaped molecules,” Europhys. Lett. 56(2), 247–253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. R. Dodge, C. Rosenblatt, R. G. Petschek, M. E. Neubert, M. E. Walsh, “Bend elasticity of mixtures of V-shaped molecules in ordinary nematogens,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(4), 5056–5063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202(1), 51–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kwok, J. Xu, G. Heppke, “Dynamics of blue-phase selective reflections in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 42(6), 3442–3448 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

H. F. Gleeson, H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Wright, N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Porsch, H. Stegemeyer, “The effect of an electric field on the selective reflection bands of liquid crystalline blue phases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 125(4), 319–323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, F. Oestreicher, “Observation of electro-optical effects in blue phase systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Achard, M. F.

H.-C. Lee, Z. Lu, P. A. Henderson, M. F. Achard, W. A. K. Mahmood, G.-Y. Yeap, C. T. Imrie, “Cholesteryl-based liquid crystal dimers containing a sulfur–sulfur link in the flexible spacer,” Liq. Cryst. 39(2), 259–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Addis, J.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aihara, K.

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, G. P.

G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, “Stabilizing the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6 Pt 1), 061706 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened BPs by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aya, S.

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, K. V. Le, S. Aya, M. Isobe, H. Yao, C. C. Huang, H. Takezoe, K. Ema, “High-resolution calorimetric study of phase transitions in chiral smectic-C liquid crystalline phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(6), 061704 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bae, K.-S.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Kim, “Low voltage and high transmittance polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal device by combined in-plane and oblique electric field along the horizontal direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072201 (2012).

Bedrov, D.

D. Chen, J. H. Porada, J. B. Hooper, A. Klittnick, Y. Shen, M. R. Tuchband, E. Korblova, D. Bedrov, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, “Chiral heliconical ground state of nanoscale pitch in a nematic liquid crystal of achiral molecular dimers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(40), 15931–15936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernatowicz, P.

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cain, M. G.

P. M. Weaver, M. G. Cain, M. Stewar, “Temperature dependence of high field electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric ceramics,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(16), 165404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cestari, M.

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, J. H. Porada, J. B. Hooper, A. Klittnick, Y. Shen, M. R. Tuchband, E. Korblova, D. Bedrov, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, “Chiral heliconical ground state of nanoscale pitch in a nematic liquid crystal of achiral molecular dimers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(40), 15931–15936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, J.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened BPs by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Hur, M.-J. Gim, H.-J. Yoo, S.-W. Choi, H. Takezoe, “Investigation for correlation between elastic constant and thermal stability of liquid crystalline blue phase I,” Soft Matter 7(19), 8800–8803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, S.-T. Hur, H. Higuchi, K. Song, S.-W. Choi, H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phase I observed for a bent-core molecule and its electro-optical performance,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(28), 5813–5816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cladis, P. E.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, N. A.

D. Chen, J. H. Porada, J. B. Hooper, A. Klittnick, Y. Shen, M. R. Tuchband, E. Korblova, D. Bedrov, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, “Chiral heliconical ground state of nanoscale pitch in a nematic liquid crystal of achiral molecular dimers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(40), 15931–15936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles, M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Gleeson, H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, P. P.

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kwok, J. Xu, G. Heppke, “Dynamics of blue-phase selective reflections in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 42(6), 3442–3448 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Fuente, M. R.

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhara, S.

P. Sathyanarayana, M. Mathew, V. S. S. Sastry, B. Kundu, K. V. Le, H. Takezoe, S. Dhara, “Splay bend elasticity of a bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 010702 (2010).

Diez-Berart, S.

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodge, M. R.

M. R. Dodge, C. Rosenblatt, R. G. Petschek, M. E. Neubert, M. E. Walsh, “Bend elasticity of mixtures of V-shaped molecules in ordinary nematogens,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(4), 5056–5063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dozov, I.

C. Meyer, G. R. Luckhurst, I. Dozov, “Flexoelectrically driven electroclinic effect in the twist-bend nematic phase of achiral molecules with bent shapes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Dozov, “On the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the mesophases of achiral banana-shaped molecules,” Europhys. Lett. 56(2), 247–253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunmur, D. A.

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eilgin-Eran, B.

H. Ocak, B. Eilgin-Eran, M. Prehm, S. Schymura, J. P. F. Lagerwall, C. Tschierske, “Effects of chain branching and chirality on liquid crystalline phases of bent-core molecules: blue phase, de Vries transitions and switching of diastereomeric states,” Soft Matter 7(18), 8266–8280 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, K. V. Le, S. Aya, M. Isobe, H. Yao, C. C. Huang, H. Takezoe, K. Ema, “High-resolution calorimetric study of phase transitions in chiral smectic-C liquid crystalline phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(6), 061704 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrarini, A.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cestari, S. Diez-Berart, D. A. Dunmur, A. Ferrarini, M. R. de la Fuente, D. J. B. Jackson, D. O. Lopez, G. R. Luckhurst, M. A. Perez-Jubindo, R. M. Richardson, J. Salud, B. A. Timimi, H. Zimmermann, “Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1″,7″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(3), 031704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J.

J. Fukuda, “Stabilization of blue phases by the variation of elastic constants,” Phys. Rev. E. 85, 020701 (2012).

Garel, T.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gim, M.-J.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened BPs by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Hur, M.-J. Gim, H.-J. Yoo, S.-W. Choi, H. Takezoe, “Investigation for correlation between elastic constant and thermal stability of liquid crystalline blue phase I,” Soft Matter 7(19), 8800–8803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, M. A.

D. Chen, J. H. Porada, J. B. Hooper, A. Klittnick, Y. Shen, M. R. Tuchband, E. Korblova, D. Bedrov, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, “Chiral heliconical ground state of nanoscale pitch in a nematic liquid crystal of achiral molecular dimers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(40), 15931–15936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleeson, H. F.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Gleeson, H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goodby, J. W.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorecka, E.

A. Zep, S. Aya, K. Aihara, K. Ema, D. Pociecha, K. Madrak, P. Bernatowicz, H. Takezoe, E. Gorecka, “Multiple nematic phases observed in chiral mesogenic dimers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(1), 46–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Görtz, V.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greco, C.

S. Kaur, J. Addis, C. Greco, A. Ferrarini, V. Görtz, J. W. Goodby, H. F. Gleeson, “Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(4), 041703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseba, Y.

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oo, T. Mizunuma, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Effects of monomer/liquid crystal compositions on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Op. Mater. Exp. 1(8), 1502–1510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

S. Wang, K. Tozaki, H. Hayashi, H. Inaba, “Nano-watt stabilized DSC and ITS applications,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 79(3), 605–613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

L. Wang, L. Yu, X. Xiao, Z. Wang, P. Yang, W. He, H. Yang, “Effects of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different rigid cores on the thermal and electro-optical performances of liquid crystalline blue phases,” Liq. Cryst. 39(5), 629–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, P. A.

H.-C. Lee, Z. Lu, P. A. Henderson, M. F. Achard, W. A. K. Mahmood, G.-Y. Yeap, C. T. Imrie, “Cholesteryl-based liquid crystal dimers containing a sulfur–sulfur link in the flexible spacer,” Liq. Cryst. 39(2), 259–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Henderson, C. Imrie, “Methylene-linked liquid crystal dimers and the twist-bend nematic phase,” Liq. Cryst. 38(11-12), 1407–1414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heppke, G.

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kwok, J. Xu, G. Heppke, “Dynamics of blue-phase selective reflections in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 42(6), 3442–3448 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, F. Oestreicher, “Observation of electro-optical effects in blue phase systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

S. Shibayama, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Dendron-stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases with an enlarged controllable range of the photonic band for tunable photonic devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(19), 2387–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oo, T. Mizunuma, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Effects of monomer/liquid crystal compositions on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Op. Mater. Exp. 1(8), 1502–1510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter 7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, S.-T. Hur, H. Higuchi, K. Song, S.-W. Choi, H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phase I observed for a bent-core molecule and its electro-optical performance,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(28), 5813–5816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, T.

Y. Kogawa, T. Hirose, A. Yoshizawa, “Biphenyl derivative stabilizing blue phases,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(47), 19132–19137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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Hooper, J. B.

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K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Kim, “Low voltage and high transmittance polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal device by combined in-plane and oblique electric field along the horizontal direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072201 (2012).

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H.-C. Lee, Z. Lu, P. A. Henderson, M. F. Achard, W. A. K. Mahmood, G.-Y. Yeap, C. T. Imrie, “Cholesteryl-based liquid crystal dimers containing a sulfur–sulfur link in the flexible spacer,” Liq. Cryst. 39(2), 259–268 (2012).
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H.-C. Lee, Z. Lu, P. A. Henderson, M. F. Achard, W. A. K. Mahmood, G.-Y. Yeap, C. T. Imrie, “Cholesteryl-based liquid crystal dimers containing a sulfur–sulfur link in the flexible spacer,” Liq. Cryst. 39(2), 259–268 (2012).
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C. Meyer, G. R. Luckhurst, I. Dozov, “Flexoelectrically driven electroclinic effect in the twist-bend nematic phase of achiral molecules with bent shapes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067801 (2013).
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T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Kundu, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, “Anomalous temperature dependence of elastic constants in the nematic phase of binary mixtures made of rodlike and bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247802 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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P. Sathyanarayana, M. Mathew, V. S. S. Sastry, B. Kundu, K. V. Le, H. Takezoe, S. Dhara, “Splay bend elasticity of a bent-core nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 010702 (2010).

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M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, D. Yang, Q. Li, “Thermally, photochemically and electrically switchable reflection colors from self-organized chiral bent-core liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(7), 2098–2103 (2011).
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K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, “Liquid Crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
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T. N. Oo, T. Mizunuma, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Effects of monomer/liquid crystal compositions on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Op. Mater. Exp. 1(8), 1502–1510 (2011).
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T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
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Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
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T. N. Oo, T. Mizunuma, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Effects of monomer/liquid crystal compositions on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Op. Mater. Exp. 1(8), 1502–1510 (2011).
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T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Ogawa, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Molecular structure of an asymmetric dimer C9, where 9 denotes the number of carbon in a flexible spacer linking a rod and a cholesterol mesogenic groups. (b) HR-DSC data of C9. Upper and lower data correspond to heating and cooling processes, respectively. Note a wide temperature range of BPs of about 37 K on cooling. The existence of BPIII and cubic BP (BPcub) with platelet textures was identified by polarizing microscopy, although assignment of BPcub to BPI or BPII could not be made. On heating, the most temperature range between Nx and Iso are Ch phase. Inset (left) clearly shows sequential transitions in between the two nematic phases, as already reported for C15 [30]. Inset (right) exhibits three transition peaks corresponding to the transitions of Ch-BPI-BPII-BPIII. Arrows are the indicators of the temperature of each phase transition. (c) Texture obtained upon cooling in a planarly-treated cell with a surface agent AL1254. Right: BPIII appears right beneath the Iso phase and coexists with Iso; Left: BPIII transformed into BPcub at ~110.7°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrographs showing the BPcub-Ch transformation by (a) shearing and (b) E-field application. In (a), textures immediately after shearing (middle) and relaxing (right) are shown. The shearing direction is indicated by a double-headed arrow with “S”. In (b), textures showing the sequential process under field application are shown; 10 Hz E-field application, 1 kHz E-field application, and 5 min after field termination (from the second left to right). Blue arrows indicate that the turbulent and the reflective states can be reversely switched by dual-frequency driving. At 85 °C, the threshold voltage of the electrohydrodynamic convection occurred at 10 Hz and Freedericksz transition occurred at 1 kHz were 4.3 Vpp and 3.1 Vpp, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results on the Kerr effect measured under an E-field of 1 kHz. (a) Kerr constant as a function of temperature. Δn vs E2 showing the Kerr law is also shown in an inset. (b) Textures showing switching under an in-plane E-field application. Open red arrow is the field direction by comb electrodes. Dark bluish and yellowish colors are due to selective reflection and field-induced birefringence, respectively. (c) Rise (closed squares) and decay (open circles) times at various temperatures by applying 50 V across the electrode gap of 10 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results showing the electrostriction effect measured under an E-field of 1 kHz. (a) Texture changes in a 6-μm-thick cell under sequential application of an E-field, termination, and relaxation. Reflection color changes by E-field application and returns back to the original color in some minutes after termination. Cracks seen in platelets suggest some lattice distortions. (b) Time evolution of reflection spectra under 100 Vpp to a 6-μm-thick cell. (c) Bragg reflection peak against E. Inset reveals the strain u defined by the Bragg reflection peak shift rate, |λ(E) - λ(0)|/λ(0), as a function of E2. Note the existence of two field regions showing different slopes. Here we only use the slope at the low field region to determine the electrostriction coefficient.

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