Abstract

The spectroscopic properties of Er3‏+ ion in tellurite glass of molar composition 76TeO2∙10ZnO∙9.0PbO∙1.0PbF2∙3.0Na2O∙1.0Er2O3 was investigated experimentally. The three phenomenological intensity parameters Ωk (k = 2, 4, 6) were determined from the absorption spectral intensities using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory. Several radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative life times were determined by using these intensity parameters. The special attention was attributed to the visible emissions that could be obtained by pumping using a blue laser diode. The stimulated emission cross-section and CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated. The latter were used to evaluate green light emitting by Er:TZPPN glass. Subsequently, the stimulated emission cross-section, around 1.5 μm, was calculated from McCumber theory. Gain cross-section for laser transition 4I13/24I15/2 of Er3+-ions was obtained. In comparison with other Er-doped laser glasses, the calculated parameters show that Er:TZPPN glass satisfies the fundamental spectral condition for laser emission around 1.5 μm. Moreover the Raman gain coefficient of the present glass was obtained from Raman scattering experiments using 532 nm excitation [(532 nm Laser type Diode-pumped, solid state (DPSS)]. The developed glass showed the widest bandwidths of gain cross section from 249 to 1,106 cm−1.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  27. F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. K. Malinovesky and A. P. Sokolov, “The nature of boson peak in Raman scattering in glasses,” Solid State Commun.57(9), 757–761 (1986).
  35. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).
  37. U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
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    [CrossRef]
  41. R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher Raman scattering cross-sections, bandwidths, and nonlinear indices in the TeO2- ZnO- Nb2O5- Mo2O3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121122 (2006).
  42. R. Jose, G. Qin, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Tailoring of Raman gain bandwidth of tellurite glasses for designing gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 373–382 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

G. Bilir and G. Ozen, “Optical absorption and emission properties of Nd3+ in TeO2–WO3 and TeO2–WO3–CdO glasses,” Physica B406(21), 4007–4013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Li and W. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent fluorescence characteristics of an ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped tellurite glass,” Physica B403(18), 3286–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose, G. Qin, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Tailoring of Raman gain bandwidth of tellurite glasses for designing gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 373–382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. Balda, J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, and J. M. Fernández Navarro, “Spectroscopy and concentration quenching of the infrared emissions in Tm3+-doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” Opt. Express15(11), 6750–6761 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yousef, M. Hotzel, and C. Rüssel, “Effect of ZnO and Bi 2O 3 addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(4), 333–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher Raman scattering cross-sections, bandwidths, and nonlinear indices in the TeO2- ZnO- Nb2O5- Mo2O3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121122 (2006).

2005 (2)

I. Shaltout and Y. Badr, “Manifestation of Nd ions on the structure, Raman and IR spectra of (TeO2 -MoO-Nd2O3) glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.40(13), 3367–3373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, and N. P. Sessions, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1,470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 112–117 (2002).

2000 (3)

R. Maalej, A. Chehaidar, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal-field analysis of Er3+ emission spectrum in epitaxial Ca(1-x)ErxF2+x thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res.221, 657–666 (2000).

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from wright-guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater.3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

1990 (2)

A. C. Harris and I. L. Weatherall, “Objective evaluation of colour variation in the sand-burrowing beetle Chaerodestrachyscelides White (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by instrumental determination of CIELAB values,” J. R. Soc. N. Z.20(3), 253–259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire and J. R. Simpson, “Evaluation of 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 Stark-level energies in erbium-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett.15(10), 547–549 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

V. K. Malinovesky and A. P. Sokolov, “The nature of boson peak in Raman scattering in glasses,” Solid State Commun.57(9), 757–761 (1986).

1984 (1)

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A136(4), 954–957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

Alaya, S.

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Al-Shihri, A. S.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Arai, Y.

Babu, P.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Badr, Y.

I. Shaltout and Y. Badr, “Manifestation of Nd ions on the structure, Raman and IR spectra of (TeO2 -MoO-Nd2O3) glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.40(13), 3367–3373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

BenMansour, H.

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilir, G.

G. Bilir and G. Ozen, “Optical absorption and emission properties of Nd3+ in TeO2–WO3 and TeO2–WO3–CdO glasses,” Physica B406(21), 4007–4013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brill, M. H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from wright-guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caceres, J. M.

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Champagnon, B.

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. Y.-Y.

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Chaussedent, S.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chehaidar, A.

R. Maalej, A. Chehaidar, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal-field analysis of Er3+ emission spectrum in epitaxial Ca(1-x)ErxF2+x thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res.221, 657–666 (2000).

Couzi, M.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Damak, K.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Day, D. E.

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, W.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

Duclere, J. R.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

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H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from wright-guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

Fargin, E.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Fernández Navarro, J. M.

Ferrari, M.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furic, K.

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

Guery, G.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

Hannon, A. C.

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
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A. C. Harris and I. L. Weatherall, “Objective evaluation of colour variation in the sand-burrowing beetle Chaerodestrachyscelides White (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by instrumental determination of CIELAB values,” J. R. Soc. N. Z.20(3), 253–259 (1990).
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T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hemmendinger, H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from wright-guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Hoppe, U.

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
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E. Yousef, M. Hotzel, and C. Rüssel, “Effect of ZnO and Bi 2O 3 addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(4), 333–338 (2007).
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R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
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S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Jaba, N.

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

Jayasankar, C. K.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jianga, S.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Jin, W.

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
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R. Jose, G. Qin, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Tailoring of Raman gain bandwidth of tellurite glasses for designing gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 373–382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher Raman scattering cross-sections, bandwidths, and nonlinear indices in the TeO2- ZnO- Nb2O5- Mo2O3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121122 (2006).

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B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
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F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kamoun, M.

R. Maalej, A. Chehaidar, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal-field analysis of Er3+ emission spectrum in epitaxial Ca(1-x)ErxF2+x thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res.221, 657–666 (2000).

Kanoun, A.

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koduka, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Kway, W. L.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Lalla, E. A.

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lavín, V.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Leon-Luís, S. F.

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
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X. Li and W. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent fluorescence characteristics of an ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped tellurite glass,” Physica B403(18), 3286–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Z.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Luo, T.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Luo, Y.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maalej, R.

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Maalej, A. Chehaidar, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal-field analysis of Er3+ emission spectrum in epitaxial Ca(1-x)ErxF2+x thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res.221, 657–666 (2000).

Maâlej, R.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maaref, H.

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
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V. K. Malinovesky and A. P. Sokolov, “The nature of boson peak in Raman scattering in glasses,” Solid State Commun.57(9), 757–761 (1986).

Martín, I. R.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A136(4), 954–957 (1964).
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Mejri, H.

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mirgorodsky, A. P.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mochida, N.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mogusmilankovic, A.

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monteil, A.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Musgraves, J. D.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

Neuefeind, J.

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, and N. P. Sessions, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1,470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 112–117 (2002).

Nie, Q.

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Effect of Bi2O3 on spectroscopic properties of Er3+ -doped tellurite bismuth glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

R. Jose, G. Qin, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Tailoring of Raman gain bandwidth of tellurite glasses for designing gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 373–382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher Raman scattering cross-sections, bandwidths, and nonlinear indices in the TeO2- ZnO- Nb2O5- Mo2O3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121122 (2006).

Ohtsuka, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Öveçoglu, M. L.

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
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Ozen, G.

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
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G. Bilir and G. Ozen, “Optical absorption and emission properties of Nd3+ in TeO2–WO3 and TeO2–WO3–CdO glasses,” Physica B406(21), 4007–4013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Payne, A.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Qin, G.

Qiu, J.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu-Hua, N.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qusti, A. H.

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reis, S. T.

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rivera-Lopez, F.

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rivera-López, F.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rolli, R.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rüssel, C.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Yousef, M. Hotzel, and C. Rüssel, “Effect of ZnO and Bi 2O 3 addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(4), 333–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Šantic, A.

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, T.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Selmi, A.

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seneschal, K.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Seo, H. J.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sessions, N. P.

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, and N. P. Sessions, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1,470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 112–117 (2002).

Shaltout, I.

I. Shaltout and Y. Badr, “Manifestation of Nd ions on the structure, Raman and IR spectra of (TeO2 -MoO-Nd2O3) glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.40(13), 3367–3373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Effect of Bi2O3 on spectroscopic properties of Er3+ -doped tellurite bismuth glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi-Xun, D.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

Smektala, F.

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Smith, L. K.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater.3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, A. P.

V. K. Malinovesky and A. P. Sokolov, “The nature of boson peak in Raman scattering in glasses,” Solid State Commun.57(9), 757–761 (1986).

Song, Z.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, R.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stephen, P. A.

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Stolen, R. H.

Sun, J.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tatar, D.

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. R.

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, and N. P. Sessions, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1,470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 112–117 (2002).

Thomas, P.

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tie-Feng, X.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, Y. H.

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater.3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater.3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Effect of Bi2O3 on spectroscopic properties of Er3+ -doped tellurite bismuth glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weatherall, I. L.

A. C. Harris and I. L. Weatherall, “Objective evaluation of colour variation in the sand-burrowing beetle Chaerodestrachyscelides White (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by instrumental determination of CIELAB values,” J. R. Soc. N. Z.20(3), 253–259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R. R.

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ya-Xun, Z.

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yousef, E.

E. Yousef, M. Hotzel, and C. Rüssel, “Effect of ZnO and Bi 2O 3 addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(4), 333–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yousef, E. S.

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. J.

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

X. Li and W. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent fluorescence characteristics of an ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped tellurite glass,” Physica B403(18), 3286–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, M. Wang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 109–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher Raman scattering cross-sections, bandwidths, and nonlinear indices in the TeO2- ZnO- Nb2O5- Mo2O3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121122 (2006).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Guery, A. Farges, T. Cardinal, M. Dussauze, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and P. Thomas, “Impact of tellurite-based glass structure on Raman gain,” Chem. Phys. Lett.554, 123127 (2012).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from wright-guild data,” Color Res. Appl.22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Stephen, A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2619–2630 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, and N. P. Sessions, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1,470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 112–117 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

N. Jaba, H. BenMansour, A. Kanoun, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Spectral broadening and luminescence quenching of 1.53 μm emission in Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.129(3), 270–276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. A. Lalla, J. M. Caceres, F. Rivera-Lopez, S. F. Leon-Luís, and V. Lavín, “Optical characterization, 1.5μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Lumin.131(6), 1239–1248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

I. Shaltout and Y. Badr, “Manifestation of Nd ions on the structure, Raman and IR spectra of (TeO2 -MoO-Nd2O3) glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.40(13), 3367–3373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (7)

A. Mogusmilankovic, A. Šantić, S. T. Reis, K. Furic, and D. E. Day, “Studies of lead–iron phosphate glasses by Raman, Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3246–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, “Raman spectra of MO- TeO2 (M = Mg, Sr, Ba and Zn) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 106–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Deng, J. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Luo, J. Lin, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Analysis of spectral components in the 1.5 μm emission band of Er3+ doped borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids336(1), 44–48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Yousef, M. Hotzel, and C. Rüssel, “Effect of ZnO and Bi 2O 3 addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(4), 333–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, R. Wang, Z. Yang, Z. Song, Z. Yin, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2-R 2O-La2O3 glasses for 1.47 μm optical amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2409–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Damak, R. Maalej, E. S. Yousef, A. H. Qusti, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ doped TZPPN transparent glass laser material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(22), 2974–2980 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346(346), 396–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

U. Hoppe, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, J. Neuefeind, and A. C. Hannon, “Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(9), 1645–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Mejri, A. Selmi, S. Alaya, and H. Maaref, “Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(20), 4523–4534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Soc. N. Z. (1)

A. C. Harris and I. L. Weatherall, “Objective evaluation of colour variation in the sand-burrowing beetle Chaerodestrachyscelides White (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by instrumental determination of CIELAB values,” J. R. Soc. N. Z.20(3), 253–259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Bilir, G. Ozen, D. Tatar, and M. L. Öveçoğlu, “Judd–Ofelt analysis and near infrared emission properties of the Er3+ ions in tellurite glasses containing WO3 and CdO,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 863–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (4)

F. Rivera-López, P. Babu, L. Jyothi, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Lavín, “Er3+–Yb3+codoped phosphate glasses used for an efficient 1.5 μm broadband gain medium,” Opt. Mater.34(8), 1235–1240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, X. Shen, Q. Nie, and Y. Gao, “Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+/Yb3+codoped tungsten–tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater.28(3), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater.21(4), 743–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater.3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Comm. (1)

S. Jianga, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Net gain of 15.5 dB from a 5.1 cm long Er3+-doped phosphate glass fiber,” Optical Fiber Comm.4, 181–183 (2000).

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. S. Yousef, K. Damak, R. Maalej, and C. Rüssel, “Thermal stability and UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy of a new erbium-doped fluorotellurite glass,” Philos. Mag.92(7), 899–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A136(4), 954–957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res. (1)

R. Maalej, A. Chehaidar, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal-field analysis of Er3+ emission spectrum in epitaxial Ca(1-x)ErxF2+x thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) Basin Res.221, 657–666 (2000).

Physica B (2)

G. Bilir and G. Ozen, “Optical absorption and emission properties of Nd3+ in TeO2–WO3 and TeO2–WO3–CdO glasses,” Physica B406(21), 4007–4013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Li and W. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent fluorescence characteristics of an ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped tellurite glass,” Physica B403(18), 3286–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scr. Mater. (1)

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclere, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium–tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

V. K. Malinovesky and A. P. Sokolov, “The nature of boson peak in Raman scattering in glasses,” Solid State Commun.57(9), 757–761 (1986).

Solid State Sci. (1)

K. Damak, E. S. Yousef, A. S. Al-Shihri, H. J. Seo, C. Rüssel, and R. Maâlej, “Quantifying Raman and emission gain coefficients of Ho3+ doped TeO2·ZnO·PbO·PbF2·Na2O (TZPPN) tellurite glass,” Solid State Sci.28, 74–80 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta [A] (2)

Z. Ling, Z. Ya-Xun, D. Shi-Xun, X. Tie-Feng, N. Qiu-Hua, and S. Xiang, “Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]68(3), 548–553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, L. Tao, C. Y.-Y. Chan, Y. H. Tsang, and W. Jin, “Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 µm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass,” Spectrochim. Acta [A]111, 49–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

X. Shen, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Effect of Bi2O3 on spectroscopic properties of Er3+ -doped tellurite bismuth glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical density for the TZPPN glass doped 1%Er2O3 from I 4 15/2 level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectrum of the Er:TZPPN glass excited by 490 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The CIE coordinates for the Er:TZPPNglass upon excitation at490 nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption cross-sections σ a ( λ ) and stimulated emission cross-section σ e ( λ ) for the Er:TZPPNglass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra of the Er:TZPPN glass and deconvolution into Gaussian peaks.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

An equivalent model of four level system for describing 1.5 µm emission of Er3+.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The gain coefficient for the I 4 13 / 2 I 4 15 / 2 transition of the Er:TZPPNglass.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Deconvolution of the Raman spectra of the Er:TZPPN glass. Experimental spectra: symbol; fitted curves: dashed lines.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Raman gain spectra for the Er:TZPPN glass calculated from absolute spontaneous Raman cross-section.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Deconvolution of the corrected Raman cross section spectra of the Er:TZPPN glass.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 The reduced matrix elementsof Er3+.

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Table 2 Average wavelengths, refractive indexes and electric and magnetic dipole line strengths for Er3+ doped TZPPNglass.

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Table 3 Electric and magnetic dipole line strengths ( S ed cal ) and ( S ed meas ) , electric dipole transition probabilities ( A ed ) , magnetic dipole transition probabilities ( A md ) , radiative branching ratios ( β ) and radiative lifetimes ( τ r ) of the energy levels of Er3+ doped TZPPN glass.

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Table 4 Peak positions (λ) and the half maximum(W) of the A-D subcomponents.

Equations (17)

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S e d c a l c ( ψ J , ψ ' J ' ) = k = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω k | ψ J U ( k ) ψ ' J ' | 2
S m d ( ψ J , ψ ' J ' ) = [ h 4 π m c ] 2 | ψ J L + 2 S ψ J ' | 2
S ed meas ( ψJ,ψ'J' )= 1 4π ε 0 [ 9n ( n 2 +2 ) 2 ][ 3ch 8 π 3 e 2 ( 2J+1 ) N λ ¯ × 2.303 JJ' OD( λ )dλ n S md ]
1 n 2 (E)1 = E s E d E 2 E s E d
δ rms = ( ( S ed meas S ed cal ) 2 ( p3 ) ) 1/2
σ em ( λ )= β λ 5 I( λ ) 8π n 2 c τ R λI( λ )dλ
X= λ x ¯ ( λ )P( λ )dλ
Y= λ y ¯ ( λ )P( λ )dλ
Z= λ z ¯ ( λ )P( λ )dλ
x= X X+Y+Z
y= Y X+Y+Z
z= Z X+Y+Z
σ abs ( λ )= ln( I 0 (λ)/I(λ) ) N = 2.303OD( λ ) N
σ em ( λ )= σ abs ( λ ) Z l Z u exp[ hc kT ( 1 λ ZL 1 λ ) ]
g ( λ ) = N [ P . σ e m ( λ ) ( 1 P ) . σ a b s ( λ ) ]
G= σ T λ S 3 c 2 h n 2 [ N( w,T )+1 ]
N ( w , T ) = 1 exp ( w K B T ) 1

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