Abstract

Direct plasma etching is a powerful method for producing antireflective nanostructures on optical polymers, such as cycloolefin polymers. The approved process requires the deposition of a very thin initial layer followed by etching. The structure depth achievable in this way is limited to approximately 100 nm. Due to this limitation, the reflectance performance of materials produced by plasma etching is sufficient in the visible spectral range for normal light incidence on planar substrates only. By depositing and etching an additional organic layer on top of the structure, its antireflective performance can be significantly broadened. This type of double structure is adequate for light incidence angles of up to 60° on planar and curved substrates.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

2010 (2)

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

2004 (1)

A. Kaless, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Nano-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech.20, 58–61 (2004).

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanisms and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Pongratz and A. Zöller, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10(4), 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Acree, M.

Bläsi, B.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanisms and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Döll, W.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dreibholz, J.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glaubitt, W.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gödeker, C.

Gombert, A.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, A.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-F.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.-J.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joo, W.

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, N.

Kaless, A.

A. Kaless, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Nano-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech.20, 58–61 (2004).

Kim, H. J.

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Leitel, R.

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Ma, P.

Minot, M.

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morhard, C.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Munzert, P.

Pacholski, C.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Poitras, D.

Pongratz, S.

S. Pongratz and A. Zöller, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10(4), 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Präfke, C.

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanisms and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rose, K.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandfuchs, O.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Schäffer, E.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Schulz, U.

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Southwell, W. H.

Spatz, J.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Sporn, D.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Vakil, H.

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendling, I.

Wittwer, V.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Zöller, A.

S. Pongratz and A. Zöller, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10(4), 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanisms and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Pongratz and A. Zöller, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10(4), 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1–3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Nature (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Science (1)

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

A. Kaless, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Nano-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech.20, 58–61 (2004).

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd edition (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001).

K. Obuchi, M. Komatsu, and K. Minami, “High performance optical materials cyclo olefin polymer ZEONEX,” Optical Manufacturing and Testing VII, Proc. SPIE 6671 (2007).

Optilayer software, http://www.optilayer.com

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection spectra of Zeonex (without backside reflection) before and after etching measured at 6°, 45° and 60° light incidence (a) and SEM micrographs of structured Zeonex from the top-view (b) and at a viewing angle of 45° (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectra (without backside reflection) of an etched melamine layer on BK7 glass measured at 6°, 45° and 60° light incidence angles compared to the spectrum of uncoated BK7 (a); SEM micrograph of structured Zeonex from the top-view (b) and at a viewing angle of 45° (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index profiles simulated to describe the optical properties of the single structures on Zeonex (a) and melamine (b) and of the double-structure (c); the measured (gray lines) and calculated (dashed black lines) indicate the reflection spectra without backside reflection of the substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection spectra (without backside reflection) of the double-structure on Zeonex measured at 6°, 45° and 60° light incidence angles compared to the spectrum of the Zeonex substrate (a); SEM micrograph of the double-structured Zeonex at a viewing angle of 45° (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission, T, and the sum of R + T at normal light incidence for the double-structure on Zeonex.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average reflection in the visible spectral range (400 nm to 750 nm) and structure depth.

Metrics