Abstract

An apparently different effect of excitonic luminescence has been observed on the Ga-/N-faces of a free-standing HVPE GaN. The neutral donor-bound exciton (D20X) emission of the N-face is only dominant at lower temperature as compared with that of the Ga-face. Moreover, the temperature-related ratio of the peak intensity of D20X to XAn=1 (a free exciton) is found to be about 2.8, which is in coincidence with the ratio of the average dislocation density of the N-face to the Ga-face confirmed by Cathodoluminiscence images. These details could provide useful information for the design of GaN-based and related devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Paskova and K. R. Evans, “GaN substrates – progress, status and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1041–1052 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. P. Maruska and J. J. Tietjen, “Preparation and properties of vapor-deposited single-crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(10), 327 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 061301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Paskova and K. R. Evans, “GaN substrates – progress, status and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1041–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. P. Maruska and J. J. Tietjen, “Preparation and properties of vapor-deposited single-crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(10), 327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenov, N.

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, P. G.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. P.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cantarero, A.

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cros, A.

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darakchieva, V.

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

T. Paskova and K. R. Evans, “GaN substrates – progress, status and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1041–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, S.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Görgens, L.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jayapalan, J.

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. K.

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. F.

S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, T.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Criado, G.

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

H. P. Maruska and J. J. Tietjen, “Preparation and properties of vapor-deposited single-crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(10), 327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miskys, C. R.

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mokhov, E. N.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. C.

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. S.

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

T. Paskova and K. R. Evans, “GaN substrates – progress, status and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1041–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phanse, V. M.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pozina, G.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shubina, T. V.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skromme, B. J.

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tietjen, J. J.

H. P. Maruska and J. J. Tietjen, “Preparation and properties of vapor-deposited single-crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(10), 327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Toropov, A. A.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usui, A.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vaudo, R. P.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, T. K.

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. P. Maruska and J. J. Tietjen, “Preparation and properties of vapor-deposited single-crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(10), 327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Skromme, J. Jayapalan, R. P. Vaudo, and V. M. Phanse, “Low-temperature luminescence of exciton and defect states in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2358–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556–2558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, H. Morkoç, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, “Yellow and green luminescence in a freestanding GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(20), 3041–3043 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Xu, W. Liu, and M. F. Li, “Direct determination of free exciton binding energy from phonon-assisted luminescence spectra in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Paskova and K. R. Evans, “GaN substrates – progress, status and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1041–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Martínez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.90(11), 5627–5631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, T. Paskova, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, N. Ashkenov, and M. Schubert, “Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. T. Kim, Y. J. Lee, D. C. Moon, C. H. Hong, and T. K. Yoo, “Preparation and properties of free-standing HVPE grown GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth194(1), 37–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Görgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, G. Pozina, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Transient photoluminescence of shallow donor bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

C. R. Miskys, M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Freestanding GaN-substrates and devices,” Phys. Status Solidi0(6), 1627–1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Nakamura and G. Fosol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, 1998).

H. Morkoç, Nitride Semiconductors and Devices (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low temperature PL spectrum of the Ga-/N-faces of a free-standing HVPE GaN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependent PL spectra of the Ga-/N-faces of a free-standing HVPE GaN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Temperature dependent ratio of the relative intensity of the D 2 0 X peak to X A n = 1 peak for both faces. (b) The variation of the peak intensity of the D 2 0 X for both faces and their corresponding Arrhenius fittings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(b) Typical CL images of the Ga-/N-faces of a free-standing HVPE GaN.

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