Abstract

We report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate SU-8-based polymer waveguide devices. The influence of hard-baking temperature on SU-8 polymer treated with or without UV radiation was investigated in detail. Based on these properties, the straight type, Y branch type, March-Zehnder (M-Z) type and 1 × 4 splitter waveguides were successfully fabricated. And a polymeric thermal-optic (TO) switch with M-Z type waveguide was also fabricated by this method. The device exhibits low power consumption of less than 6.4 mW, fast rise time of about 149.3 µs and fast fall time of about 139.3 µs. The experimental results showed that this method can bypass the need for complex lithography and provide high resolution and fine waveguide quality desired for TO switches as well as other planar lightwave devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
  6. A. Kocabas and A. Aydinli, “Polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter using soft lithography,” Opt. Express14(22), 10228–10232 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Zhai, J. Li, S. Liu, X. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, D. Zhang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Enhancement of 1.53 µm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 270–277 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Liu, “Recent developments in polymer MEMS,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3783–3790 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Nordström, D. A. Zauner, A. Boisen, and J. Hübner, “Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1284–1289 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-S. Huang and W.-C. Wang, “Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding,” Appl. Opt.47(25), 4540–4547 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Yang, Y. P. Zhu, Y. Q. Jiao, L. Yang, Z. Sheng, S. He, and D. Dai, “Compact arrayed waveguide grating devices based on small SU-8 strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(13), 2009–2014 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Singhal, M. N. Satyanarayan, and S. Pal, “Fabrication of monomode channel waveguides in photosensitive polymer on optical adhesive,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 094601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. H. Ong, X. Yuan, and S. C. Tjin, “Adjustable refractive index modulation for a waveguide with SU-8 photoresist by dual-UV exposure lithography,” Appl. Opt.45(31), 8036–8039 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. H. Ong, X. C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and S. C. Tjin, “Photothermally enabled lithography for refractive-index modulation in SU-8 photoresist,” Opt. Lett.31(10), 1367–1369 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. M. Al-Hetar, A. B. Mohammad, A. S. M. Supa’at, and Z. A. Shamsan, “MMI-MZI polymer thermal-optic switch with a high refractive index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(2), 171–178 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

2009 (6)

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C.-S. Huang and W.-C. Wang, “Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding,” Appl. Opt.47(25), 4540–4547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Liu, “Recent developments in polymer MEMS,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3783–3790 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nordström, D. A. Zauner, A. Boisen, and J. Hübner, “Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1284–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hetar, A. M.

Allbritton, N. L.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

Bachman, M.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bêche, B.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boisen, A.

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M.

Chen, C.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C.-F.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Dai, D.

Debarnot, D.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B. Y.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaviot, E.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, K. P.

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gunde, M. K.

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hakalahti, L.

Hauptman, N.

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hiltunen, J.

Hu, R.

Huang, C.-S.

Huang, Y. C.

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, Y. Q.

Jin, L.

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C.

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karioja, P.

Kim, W. K.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, A.

Kunaver, M.

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. W.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H.-H.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lam, M. H. W.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Lee, C. S.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Lee, H. M.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-Y.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lei, E. N. Y.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Lei, K.-L.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Li, G. P.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. Zhai, J. Li, S. Liu, X. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, D. Zhang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Enhancement of 1.53 µm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 270–277 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Li, Y. X.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liedert, C.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, “Recent developments in polymer MEMS,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3783–3790 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macek, M.

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miura, Y.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mohammad, A. B.

Myer, B.

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Myllylä, R.

Nordström, M.

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, D.

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ong, B. H.

Pai, J.-H.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S.

R. Singhal, M. N. Satyanarayan, and S. Pal, “Fabrication of monomode channel waveguides in photosensitive polymer on optical adhesive,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 094601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Papet, P.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pau, S.

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, S.

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poncin-Epaillard, F.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Qin, G.

Qin, W.

Roy, V. A. L.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Satyanarayan, M. N.

R. Singhal, M. N. Satyanarayan, and S. Pal, “Fabrication of monomode channel waveguides in photosensitive polymer on optical adhesive,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 094601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shamsan, Z. A.

Shan, Z.

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

Shew, B. Y.

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.-Y.

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sims, C. E.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singhal, R.

R. Singhal, M. N. Satyanarayan, and S. Pal, “Fabrication of monomode channel waveguides in photosensitive polymer on optical adhesive,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 094601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, G. S.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Supa’at, A. S. M.

Tao, S. H.

Tjin, S. C.

Tsai, Y. H.

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, K.-C.

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

Wang, F.

Wang, M.

Wang, W.-C.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Yang, L.

Yang, T.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. S.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. H.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

Yuan, X. C.

Zauner, D. A.

Zhai, X.

Zhang, D.

X. Zhai, J. Li, S. Liu, X. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, D. Zhang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Enhancement of 1.53 µm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 270–277 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Zheng, C.

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. P.

Zohar, Y.

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Liu, “Recent developments in polymer MEMS,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3783–3790 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Y. Fan, F. Liu, Y. X. Li, Y. D. Huang, Y. Miura, and D. Ohnishi, “Refractive index sensor based on hybrid coupler with short-range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. K. Gunde, N. Hauptman, M. Maček, and M. Kunaver, “The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(3), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, G. S. Son, D. H. Yoon, S.-D. Lee, and H.-Y. Lee, “The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5466–5470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Meng, X. Sun, T. Yang, J. Sun, C. Chen, C. Zheng, and D. Zhang, “Inductively coupled plasma etching to fabricate sensing window for polymer waveguide biosensor application,” Appl. Surf. Sci.259(15), 105–109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

K.-L. Lei, C.-F. Chow, K.-C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

L. Jiang, K. P. Gerhardt, B. Myer, Y. Zohar, and S. Pau, “Evanescent-wave spectroscopy using an SU-8 waveguide for rapid quantitative detection of biomolecules,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(6), 1495–1500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Y. Wang, J.-H. Pai, H.-H. Lai, C. E. Sims, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and N. L. Allbritton, “Surface graft polymerization of SU-8 for bio-MEMS application,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(7), 1371–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Cao, Y. Yan, J. Meng, L. Jin, and D. Zhang, “Low power consumption thermal-optic switch based on DR1/PMMA,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.54(9), 2163–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Gao, J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, “Low switching power 2×2 thermal-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process,” Opt. Commun.282(20), 4091–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bêche, P. Papet, D. Debarnot, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Fluorine plasma treatment on SU-8 polymer for integrated optics,” Opt. Commun.246(1–3), 25–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Singhal, M. N. Satyanarayan, and S. Pal, “Fabrication of monomode channel waveguides in photosensitive polymer on optical adhesive,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 094601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S.-Y. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique,” Opt. Laser Technol.41(4), 495–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, “UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.120(2), 383–389 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The molecular structure of SU-8 monomer unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface morphologies of the sample. (a) Optical microscope image of the M-Z waveguides, the inset is a magnified figure of the selected M-Z waveguide (in the middle); (b) 3D-AFM image of the waveguide surface; (c) 2D-AFM image of the waveguide surface; (d) The height profile of the white line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curves of refractive indices of the exposed and unexposed films at 1550 nm wavelength versus the hard-baking temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The detailed reaction yielded by exposing and bard-baking the photosensitive polymer SU-8 2005. (a) Illustration of the UV-induced reaction of SU-8 2005; (b) Illustration of the temperature-induced reaction of SU-8 2005.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FTIR spectra of (a) exposed and (b) unexposed SU-8 2005 films at various hard-baking temperatures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fabrication process of waveguide device.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field guided-mode patterns. (a) straight type; (b) Y branch type; (c) M-Z type; (d) 1 × 4 splitter waveguide at 1550 nm wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured curve of output power versus heating power. The insets show the near-field guided-mode of the device at 1550 nm wavelength under (a) ON-state and (b) OFF-state.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Switching response of the TO switch on a 0.2 KHz rectangular wave. The upper is the driving voltage signal, and the lower is the switching response.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparisons among the performances of this TO switch and those of other polymer TO switches

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = 4 π N 3 M ε ρ β ,

Metrics