Abstract

We report, for the first time, Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se films and waveguides deposited using co-thermal evaporation and patterned with plasma etching. The emission properties of the bulk glasses were studied as a function of Erbium doping, showing for the first time that there is a clear concentration quenching effect in the Ge-Ga-Se glasses with a linear radiative lifetime degradation slope of −0.48 ms/mol% Er from a low concentration lifetime of 1.7 ms, even when sufficient Gallium is present to ensure homogeneous distribution of the Erbium. A region between approximately 0.5 and 0.75 mol% Erbium however is shown to provide sufficient doping, good photoluminescence and adequate lifetime to envisage practical planar waveguide amplifier devices. Film emission properties at 0.7 mol% doping were studied and compared with the bulk counterpart showing adequate lifetimes and photoluminescence. Erbium doped films with ~0.8 dB/cm propagation loss at 1550 nm limited by Mie scattering off small particles ejected from the evaporation crucible were fabricated. Planar hybrid Er-Ge-Ga-Se/As2S3 rib waveguides fabricated through photolithography and plasma etching demonstrated propagation losses of ~2 dB/cm at 1650 nm limited by particulate scattering.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
  2. S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W⁻¹m⁻¹ at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
  7. D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Madden, Z. Jin, D. Choi, S. Debbarma, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3582–3594 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
    [Crossref]
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  11. A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide Erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).
  18. S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).
  22. V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).
  27. R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. J. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy-transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 1982–1989 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 93–103 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  34. W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500-Nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  35. C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  36. X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  38. Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).
  39. D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Madden, Z. Jin, D. Choi, S. Debbarma, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3582–3594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

2010 (5)

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W⁻¹m⁻¹ at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide Erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. J. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy-transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 1982–1989 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 93–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500-Nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abrutis, A.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, M. M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Allen, T. W.

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Almeida, R. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aoki, H.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 93–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barbier, D.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bindra, K.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
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Bishop, S. G.

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
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Bookey, H. J.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
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Brik, M. G.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D.

Bulla, D. A.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
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D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulla, D. A. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

Charpentier, F.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Charrier, J.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.

Choi, D. Y.

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W⁻¹m⁻¹ at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clausen, A. T.

Coleman, D. J.

Debbarma, S.

Decorby, R.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Decorby, R. G.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, X. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fick, J.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Frumar, M.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frumarova, B.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fu, G.

S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujita, M.

K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).

Gai, X.

Galili, M.

Gastaldo, P.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gawelda, W.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giesen, C.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
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Golding, P.

Goldner, P.

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 93–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guimond, Y.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guin, J. P.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haugen, C.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haugen, C. J.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hawkeye, M. M.

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hempstead, M.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
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Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hrdlicka, M.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. H.

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ikari, T.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, E.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, Z. G.

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

Jackson, S. D.

Jacquier, B.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, R. A.

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jedelsky, J.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeppesen, P.

Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

Jurdyc, A. M.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kasap, S.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kasap, S. O.

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

King, T. A.

Knystautus, E. J.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koughia, C.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koughia, K.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koughia, K. V.

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

Lhermite, H.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, S. L.

S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. B.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

Longo, M.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lousteau, J.

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luan, F.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Madden, Z. Jin, D. Choi, S. Debbarma, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3582–3594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W⁻¹m⁻¹ at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davis, B.

Ma, H. L.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Madden, S.

S. Madden, Z. Jin, D. Choi, S. Debbarma, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3582–3594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide Erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W⁻¹m⁻¹ at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

Madden, S. J.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeda, K.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, Y.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, O.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

McMullin, J. N.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500-Nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mongardien, D.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moore, R. C.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moreac, A.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moronvalle, C.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mugnier, J.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mulvad, H. C. H.

Munzar, M.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Naftaly, M.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nazabal, V.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nemec, P.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okada, K.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Orignac, X.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirovano, A.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pivin, J. C.

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

Plausinaitiene, V.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prasad, A.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
[Crossref]

Richards, B.

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Richardson, K. A.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rode, A.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D. Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As(2)S(3) chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, S.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rushworth, S.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saito, N.

K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).

Salicio, O.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schiettekatte, F.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. X.

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skapas, M.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soundararajan, G.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Takahiko Imai, K. M.

K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).

Tawarayama, H.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tonchev, D.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tonchev, D. T.

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

Toratani, H.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vannucci, A.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vu, K.

Wagner, T.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wiemer, C.

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yamanaka, K.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yanagita, H.

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y. K.

S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeatman, E.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zha, C.

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. (1)

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys Adv. Mater. 96, 615–625 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J Sel Top Quant (1)

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J Sel Top Quant 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Tech L (1)

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Submicrometer-Thick Low-Loss As2S3 Planar Waveguides for Nonlinear Optical Devices,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 22(7), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Tech. L (1)

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength Conversion of High-Speed Phase and Intensity Modulated Signals Using a Highly Nonlinear Chalcogenide Glass Chip,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE T Nanotechnol (1)

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, A. Ankiewicz, and B. Luther-Davies, “Surface roughness in plasma-etched As2S3 films: Its origin and improvement,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(3), 285–290 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Tawarayama, E. Ishikawa, K. Yamanaka, K. Itoh, K. Okada, H. Aoki, H. Yanagita, Y. Matsuoka, and H. Toratani, “Optical amplification at 1.3 mu m in a praseodymium-doped sulfide-glass fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(4), 792–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightw. Tech. (2)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-Doped Glasses for Fiber Amplifiers at 1500-Nm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

A. Jha, S. X. Shen, L. H. Huang, B. Richards, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth doped glass waveguides for visible, near-IR and mid-IR lasers and amplifiers,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 315–320 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, “Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 378–382 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Fick, E. J. Knystautus, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (2)

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1271–1276 (2005).

D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z. G. Ivanova, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)(75)(Ga2S3)(25) glasses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 337–340 (2007).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Abrutis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Skapas, C. Wiemer, O. Salicio, M. Longo, A. Pirovano, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, S. Rushworth, and C. Giesen, “Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(12), 2338–2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (1)

S. L. Li, G. Fu, and Y. K. Ye, “1.54 um Photoluminescence emission from Er-implanted SiO2 crystal and SiO2 glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 307, 434–437 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, and C. Moronvalle, “Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the sol-gel technique,” Opt. Commun. 164(1-3), 19–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun. 285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Mater. (3)

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 93–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 mu m,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Ga-x(Ge0.3Se0.7)(100-x) glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 225–230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Physica Status Solidi (1)

K. M. Takahiko Imai, M. Fujita, and N. Saito, “Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped amorphous gallium-germanium-selenium films fabricated by RF sputtering,” Physica Status Solidi (C)  6, 106-109 (2009).

Thin Solid Films (1)

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. C. Righini, M. Brenci, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and B. J. Chen, “Integrated optical amplifiers based on rare-earth doped (RED) oxide glasses,” International Symposium on Photonic Glass (Ispg 2002) 5061, 36–42 (2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fluorescence spectra of Ge-Ga-Se glasses with different Er concentrations excited at 830 nm (a); Emission intensity at 1538 nm with 830 nm excitation and absorption as a function of Er concentrations (b); Emission intensity at 1538 nm with different Er doped concentrations excited at 1490 nm (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized absorption, emission spectra and simulated emission cross-section based on M-C theory, and max pump efficiency with pump at 1490 nm of the 0.1 mol% doped bulk glass
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PL intensity versus pump intensity in 0.1 and 2 mol% samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 1/e and intrinsic lifetime of 4I13/2 metastable state of Er3+ with different doping concentrations (a) at extrapolated zero pump power (b) at high pump power (~600 KW/cm2 intensity).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PL intensity (a) and 1/e lifetime (b) versus pump intensity in films.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Absorption spectrum of Er doped films measured by prism coupler with a fitted curve based on erbium doped GeGaSe bulk glass.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Structure of a 2 μm waveguide and simulated TE fundamental mode (The overlap for TE mode and Er doped area are around 89%).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cut-back method for the loss measurement of 2 μm waveguide in TE mode.

Equations (1)

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τ obs = τ 0 1+ (ρ/Q) p

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