Abstract

Rare Earth doped YAG crystals with controlled variable doping, are laser gain materials recently attracting much attention due to the unique properties it offer in terms of laser engineering. It is very important to perform an accurate and reliable doping spatial distribution measurement in order to be capable to fully map the doping values in the obtained material. We therefore cross-evaluated most common methods. We also mapped doping distribution in a Bagdasarov grown Yb:YAG crystal.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Arzakantsyan, D. Albach, N. Ananyan, V. Gevorgyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “Yb3+:YAG growth with controlled doping distribution using modified horizontal direct crystallization,” J. Cryst. Growth329(1), 39–43 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Arzakantsyan, D. Albach, N. Ananyan, V. Gevorgyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “Yb3+:YAG crystal growth with controlled doping distribution,” Opt. Mater. Express2(1), 20–30 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Arzakantsyan, N. Ananyan, V. Gevorgyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “Growth of large 90 mm diameter Yb:YAG single crystals with Bagdasarov method,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1219–1225 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Gonçalvès-Novo, D. Albach, B. Vincent, M. Arzakantsyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “14 J/2 Hz Yb3+:YAG diode pumped solid state laser chain,” Opt. Express21(1), 855–866 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Jurgen, Mass Spectroscopy, Second Edition (Springer, 2011).
  10. X-Ray Spectrometry in Electron Beam Instruments, D. B. Williams, J. I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, Eds. (Springer Science + Business Media, 1995).
  11. M. Mayer, “Rutherford back scattering spectrometry,” Lectures given at the Workshop on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Materials Analysis, Trieste, Italy, 19–30 May 2003.
  12. G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. J. Rhodes, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Principles and Instrumentation in Encyclopaedia of Analytical Science (Elsevier, 2004), p. 332.
  15. HiPER, www.hiper-laser.org

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

M. Arzakantsyan, D. Albach, N. Ananyan, V. Gevorgyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “Yb3+:YAG growth with controlled doping distribution using modified horizontal direct crystallization,” J. Cryst. Growth329(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Albach, D.

Ananyan, N.

Arzakantsyan, M.

Basun, S. A.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chani, V. I.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chanteloup, J.-C.

Cohen-Adad, M. T.

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deng, P.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, V.

Gonçalvès-Novo, T.

Goutaudier, C.

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuch, S.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwano, Y.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mix, E.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, P. X.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, B.

Xu, J.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (5)

M. Arzakantsyan, D. Albach, N. Ananyan, V. Gevorgyan, and J.-C. Chanteloup, “Yb3+:YAG growth with controlled doping distribution using modified horizontal direct crystallization,” J. Cryst. Growth329(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, Y. Kuwano, K. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Y3Al5O12:Nd fiber crystals by micro-pulling-down technique,” J. Cryst. Growth212(3–4), 469–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, J. Si, X. Xu, J. Xu, H. Song, and Y. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth257(3–4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

G. Boulon, L. Laversenne, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, and M. T. Cohen-Adad, “Radiative and non-radiative energy transfers in Yb3+-doped sesquioxide and garnet laser crystals from a combinatorial approach based on gradient concentration fibers,” J. Lumin.102–103, 417–425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare- earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin.87–89, 973–975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Other (5)

H. Jurgen, Mass Spectroscopy, Second Edition (Springer, 2011).

X-Ray Spectrometry in Electron Beam Instruments, D. B. Williams, J. I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, Eds. (Springer Science + Business Media, 1995).

M. Mayer, “Rutherford back scattering spectrometry,” Lectures given at the Workshop on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Materials Analysis, Trieste, Italy, 19–30 May 2003.

C. J. Rhodes, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Principles and Instrumentation in Encyclopaedia of Analytical Science (Elsevier, 2004), p. 332.

HiPER, www.hiper-laser.org

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RBS spectrum for Yb:YAG samples with 2 at% and 20 at% doping levels. The curve is the simulated RBS spectrum for 2 at% Yb doped YAG sample. Only the first two right steps (associated with Y and Yb presence) are of interest for us.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Most common orientations for crystallization front during a Bagdasarov growth: top view (a and b), and side view (c and d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Picture (a) and schematic representation (b) of the extracted sample. Colored arrows indicate lines along which measurements were performed. The coordinate system is equivalent to the one presented on the Fig. 2

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a.Yb doping distribution alongside X (green) and Y (magenta) axes. The doping level is quite homogeneous in Y direction and was recorded approximately at x = 5 mm, i.e. the middle of the sample. b. Right pictures illustrate the visualization of growth front curvature on a Bagdasarov grown boule.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) doping distribution alongside Z1 (red) and Z2 (blue) axes. The variation of doping level clearly refers to the inclination of growth front. The starting values are in a good accordance with the data measured along X axis. (b) doping distribution map in the Oxz plane.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Trivalent Yb doping level in two YAG samples measured with different techniques

Equations (1)

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A( x,z )=( 2.88 10 4 x6.43 10 2 )z0.12x+3.76

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