Abstract

A facile and scalable method for enhancing the light trapping effect of indium tin oxide films on photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. The Langmiur Blodgett technique is introduced to fabricate gold nano-membranes on the photovoltaic solar cells. Textured structures on the indium tin oxide films are created with the nano-membrane, producing effective surface roughness for significantly improved light trapping. As a result, the quantum efficiency of the solar cell integrated with the nano-membrane textured indium tin oxide film is enhanced over a broadband wavelength range, which leads to a 13% enhancement on the photocurrent density and an 8% efficiency enhancement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Dimitrov and C.-H. Du, “Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture,” Appl. Surf. Sci.266, 1–4 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A355–A362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Tien and A. K. Chu, “Double-layer ITO antireflection electrodes fabricated at low temperature,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100(0), 258–262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Indium tin oxide subwavelength nanostructures with surface antireflection and superhydrophilicity for high-efficiency Si-based thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express20( S3), A431–A440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

2009 (2)

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Koch, M. Ito, and M. Schubert, “Low-temperature deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells68(2), 227–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183–185 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. J.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, N. J.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bätzner, D. L.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bengang, X.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Bo, W.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Cai, B.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, X. J.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Charriere, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A. K.

W. C. Tien and A. K. Chu, “Double-layer ITO antireflection electrodes fabricated at low temperature,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100(0), 258–262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, D. Z.

D. Z. Dimitrov and C.-H. Du, “Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture,” Appl. Surf. Sci.266, 1–4 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.-H.

D. Z. Dimitrov and C.-H. Du, “Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture,” Appl. Surf. Sci.266, 1–4 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Escarre, J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fahim, N.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Fan, Y.-M.

S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordijn, A.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Grätzel, M.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruszecki, T.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A355–A362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guichuan, X.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Han, N.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, A.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, Y.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. G.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hore, S.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hove, J. M. V.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.-T.

S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

C. Koch, M. Ito, and M. Schubert, “Low-temperature deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells68(2), 227–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A355–A362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khrypunov, G.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. K.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, C.

C. Koch, M. Ito, and M. Schubert, “Low-temperature deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells68(2), 227–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, J. M.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurdesau, F.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, K. C.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, C. Y.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leem, D.-S.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leem, J. W.

Li, J.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Liska, P.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luk, W. C.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lydia, H. W.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Meier, M.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Merdzhanova, T.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Mise, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, A. M. C.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. L.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nripan, M.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Ohmori, D.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A355–A362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Paetzold, U. W.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Palomares, E.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.-M.

S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, H.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prömpers, M.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Qiao, Q.

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, A.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
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S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
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S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
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P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
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Saha, J. K.

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
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X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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M. Scherff, “Novel methode for preparation of interdigitated back contacted a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells,” in Proceedings of 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Hamburg, 2011), pp. 2125 - 2129.

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D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
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D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
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Shi, Z.

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
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M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
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S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
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X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
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J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
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X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
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Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Subodh, G. M.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

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W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
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C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183–185 (1986).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

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G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
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T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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Tze Chien, S.

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Uthirakumar, P.

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
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Vanecek, M.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
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Ventura, M. J.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Walter, J.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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Wang, G.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
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Wang, P.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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Wang, Y.

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
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Wei, T.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
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Wu, J. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
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J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
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R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
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Xie, S.

Yang, C. C.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
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S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
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Yang, J. W.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
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Yang, S. S.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, K. M.

W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, F.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183–185 (1986).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. Z. Dimitrov and C.-H. Du, “Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture,” Appl. Surf. Sci.266, 1–4 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (1)

S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. (1)

P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).

Nano Lett. (1)

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) – (e) Schematic diagrams of the fabrication processes of the AuNMs and their deposition onto the solar cell. (c) TEM image of the as-fabricated AuNM. (f) Schematic structure of Cell A deposited with the AuNM. (g) Schematic structure of Cell A deposited with the AuNM and ITO film. (h) Schematic structure of Cell B deposited only with the ITO film. The color bars represent the corresponding parts of the solar cells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a – c) SEM images and (d – f) AFM images of the samples. (a) and (d) AuNM. (b) and (e) ITO film. (c) and (f) ITO film deposited on the AuNM. (g) The 1-D profile of the texture at the specified position of (f) as indicated by the black line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured reflectance (solid lines) of a bare solar cell, Cell A with ITO + AuNM and Cell B with ITO. The dashed lines represent the FDTD simulated reflectance for the corresponding cases. (b) Simulated transmittance (T) and absorbance (A) of the ITO film and AuNM/ITO integrated film on silicon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) EQE curves of the bare solar cell, Cell A and Cell B. (b) EQE enhancement of Cell A and Cell B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

J-V curves of Cell A with and without the AuNM/ITO integrated film.

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