Abstract

Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation on the photoluminescence of carbon dots (CDs) is investigated. After the ultraviolet light irradiation, CDs exhibit red shifted and enhanced green emission, and significantly enhanced emission in the wavelength region from green-yellow to red. Carbonyl groups increase remarkably originated from photochemical oxidation, resulting in more defect energy trapping (DET) states, higher electron density, and stronger n(OH)→π*(CO) interactions. Consequently, a decrease in band gap and more contribution from the DET states related radiative recombination result in an enhancement of green emission and beyond, while ultraviolet emission is reduced and blue shifted due to the decrease of sp2 carbons.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

S. J. Zhu, S. J. Tang, J. H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Zhang, L. B. Tang, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Observation of white-light amplified spontaneous emission from carbon nanodots under laser excitation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 490–495 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ha and P. Tinnefeld, “Photophysics of fluorescent probes for single-molecule biophysics and super-resolution imaging,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 595–617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. N. Baker and G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Smith, D. Gruber, and T. Plakhotnik, “The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds,” Diamond Related Materials19(4), 314–318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. A. Kloepfer, S. E. Bradforth, and J. L. Nadeau, “Photophysical properties of biologically compatible CdSe quantum dot structures,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(20), 9996–10003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. P. Gordon, T. Ha, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(17), 6462–6465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Al-Muhtaseb, S. A.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anilkumar, P.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, G. A.

S. N. Baker and G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S. N.

S. N. Baker and G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, R.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradforth, S. E.

J. A. Kloepfer, S. E. Bradforth, and J. L. Nadeau, “Photophysical properties of biologically compatible CdSe quantum dot structures,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(20), 9996–10003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunker, C. E.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Cao, S.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, S. R.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cárdenas, S.

C. Carrillo-Carrión, S. Cárdenas, B. M. Simonet, and M. Valcárcel, “Quantum dots luminescence enhancement due to illumination with UV/Vis light,” Chem. Commun.355214–5226 (2009).

Carrillo-Carrión, C.

C. Carrillo-Carrión, S. Cárdenas, B. M. Simonet, and M. Valcárcel, “Quantum dots luminescence enhancement due to illumination with UV/Vis light,” Chem. Commun.355214–5226 (2009).

Chand, S.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, N.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheetham, A. K.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. L.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. A.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. S.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. R.

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M. W.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M. C.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, W. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
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Chhowalla, M.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
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K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
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D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H.

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
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H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
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M. P. Gordon, T. Ha, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(17), 6462–6465 (2004).
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B. R. Smith, D. Gruber, and T. Plakhotnik, “The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds,” Diamond Related Materials19(4), 314–318 (2010).
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L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
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T. Ha and P. Tinnefeld, “Photophysics of fluorescent probes for single-molecule biophysics and super-resolution imaging,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 595–617 (2012).
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M. P. Gordon, T. Ha, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(17), 6462–6465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harru?, B. A.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Harruff, B. A.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, M.

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. D.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S. L.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. X.

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isoda, S.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, Y.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, S. H.

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Z. M.

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jun, G. H.

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Z. H.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kermarrec, F.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Kim, H.

S. H. Jin, H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, and S. Jeon, “Tuning the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots through the charge transfer effect of functional groups,” ACS Nano7(2), 1239–1245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kloepfer, J. A.

J. A. Kloepfer, S. E. Bradforth, and J. L. Nadeau, “Photophysical properties of biologically compatible CdSe quantum dot structures,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(20), 9996–10003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kose, M. E.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. J.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, S. P.

Lee, J. R.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. M.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. T.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Li, S. S.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lian, S. Y.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, B. Y.

K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, Y. J.

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F. S.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Lu, L. P.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P. G.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, G. H.

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J. J.

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. J.

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meziani, M. J.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Miura, K.

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, J. L.

J. A. Kloepfer, S. E. Bradforth, and J. L. Nadeau, “Photophysical properties of biologically compatible CdSe quantum dot structures,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(20), 9996–10003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nedeljkovic, J.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, T.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
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Nieh, C. C.

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M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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B. R. Smith, D. Gruber, and T. Plakhotnik, “The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds,” Diamond Related Materials19(4), 314–318 (2010).
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X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

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Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
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S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
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D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
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D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
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Ren, J. S.

H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
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Rumbles, G.

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, S.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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M. P. Gordon, T. Ha, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(17), 6462–6465 (2004).
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Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
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Shao, L. X.

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
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V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
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D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
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C. Carrillo-Carrión, S. Cárdenas, B. M. Simonet, and M. Valcárcel, “Quantum dots luminescence enhancement due to illumination with UV/Vis light,” Chem. Commun.355214–5226 (2009).

Sivaniah, E.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. R.

B. R. Smith, D. Gruber, and T. Plakhotnik, “The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds,” Diamond Related Materials19(4), 314–318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
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V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
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S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. J.

H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
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Sun, Y. P.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Tackett, K. N.

L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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Tan, D. Z.

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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Tang, L. B.

Tang, S. J.

S. J. Zhu, S. J. Tang, J. H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
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S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
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S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
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Valcárcel, M.

C. Carrillo-Carrión, S. Cárdenas, B. M. Simonet, and M. Valcárcel, “Quantum dots luminescence enhancement due to illumination with UV/Vis light,” Chem. Commun.355214–5226 (2009).

Veca, L. M.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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Wang, H. Y.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
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S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
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L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Wang, X. F.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. J. Sun, L. Wu, N. Gao, J. S. Ren, and X. G. Qu, “Improvement of photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots with a biocompatible photochemical reduction pathway and its bioimaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5(3), 1174–1179 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Cao, S. Sahu, P. Anilkumar, C. E. Bunker, J. Xu, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Wang, E. A. Guliants, K. N. Tackett, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(13), 4754–4757 (2011).
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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

S. J. Zhu, S. J. Tang, J. H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. L.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
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S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
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K. M. Lee, W. Y. Cheng, C. Y. Chen, J. J. Shyue, C. C. Nieh, C. F. Chou, J. R. Lee, Y. Y. Lee, C. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Chang, T. C. Yang, M. C. Cheng, and B. Y. Lin, “Excitation-dependent visible fluorescence in decameric nanoparticles with monoacylglycerol cluster chromophores,” Nat Commun4(2), 1544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X. B.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, S. Y. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. B. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S. F.

Yu, W. L.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zavala-Rivera, P.

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. J.

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. H.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zhu, S. J. Tang, J. H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. F.

Zhao, Q.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, B.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

Zhou, J.

Z. S. Qian, J. J. Ma, X. Y. Shan, L. X. Shao, J. Zhou, J. R. Chen, and H. Feng, “Surface functionalization of graphene quantum dots with small organic molecules from photoluminescence modulation to bioimaging applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation,” RSC Adv.3(34), 14571–14579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S. F.

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Zhu, S. J.

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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

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ACS Nano

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Adv. Funct. Mater.

S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Tang, C. Y. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Y. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. F. Li, W. L. Yu, X. F. Wang, H. C. Sun, and B. Yang, “Surface chemistry routes to modulate the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots: from fluorescence mechanism to up-conversion bioimaging applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(22), 4732–4740 (2012).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

S. N. Baker and G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. W. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C. W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012).
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Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

T. Ha and P. Tinnefeld, “Photophysics of fluorescent probes for single-molecule biophysics and super-resolution imaging,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 595–617 (2012).
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Carbon

D. Z. Tan, S. F. Zhou, B. B. Xu, P. Chen, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Simple synthesis of ultra-small nanodiamonds with tunable size and photoluminescence,” Carbon62, 374–381 (2013).
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Chem. Asian J.

S. L. Hu, R. X. Tian, L. L. Wu, Q. Zhao, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Chemical regulation of carbon quantum dots from synthesis to photocatalytic activity,” Chem. Asian J.8(5), 1035–1041 (2013).
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Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

H. Z. Zheng, Q. L. Wang, Y. J. Long, H. J. Zhang, X. X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

S. J. Zhu, S. J. Tang, J. H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
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Diamond Related Materials

B. R. Smith, D. Gruber, and T. Plakhotnik, “The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds,” Diamond Related Materials19(4), 314–318 (2010).
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J. Phys. Chem. B

M. Jones, J. Nedeljkovic, R. J. Ellingson, A. J. Nozik, and G. Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(41), 11346–11352 (2003).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. L. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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S. L. Hu, Y. Guo, Y. G. Dong, J. L. Yang, J. Liu, and S. R. Cao, “Understanding the effects of the structures on the energy gaps in carbon nanoparticles from laser synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem.22(24), 12053 (2012).
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Nat Commun

Q. L. Song, S. Cao, P. Zavala-Rivera, L. P. Lu, W. Li, Y. Ji, S. A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. K. Cheetham, and E. Sivaniah, “Photo-oxidative enhancement of polymeric molecular sieve membranes,” Nat Commun4(5), 1918 (2013).
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Nat Commun

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Opt. Mater. Express

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D. Z. Tan, Z. J. Ma, B. B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. H. Ma, M. He, Z. M. Jin, and J. R. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

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X. Wang, L. Cao, F. S. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. T. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (25) 3774–3776 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images of p-CDs (a) and 7 h-CDs (b). Inset: size distribution of 7 h-CDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of p-CDs (a) and 6 h-CDs (b) excited at different wavelengths. (c, d) Normalized emission spectra of (a, b), respectively. Emission spectra of p-CDs and 6 h-CDs excited at 320 nm (e) and 340 nm (f). Green curves: Gaussian fitting. Red curves: summary of Gaussian fitting. Inset of (e, f): the corresponding normalized emission spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of the CDs after the UV light irradiation for different time excited at 300 nm (a), 400 nm (b), and 500 nm (c). The PL peak position and intensity of CDs excited at 300 nm (d) and 400 nm (e) after the UV light irradiation for different time. (f): the relationship between tbe irradiation time and band gap contributing to UV (ex. 300 nm) and green (ex. 400 nm) emissions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation spectra monitoring emissions at 370 nm (a) and 500 nm (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

C1s XPS curves of p-CDs (a) and 7 h-CDs (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Quantum yields of p-CDs and 7 h-CDs excited at 320, 340 and 360 nm.

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