Abstract

Optical vortices have great potentials in optical communications, quantum computations, micro-manipulations and so on. At present, fast switching and reconfiguring of these beam vortices are still challenges. We proposed a blue phase liquid crystal fork grating by applying a vertical electric field with a forked electrode to the polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal cell. A fork shaped phase profile with alternation of isotropic and ordinary refractive indices in the lateral direction is thus obtained. Both fork gratings and fork grating array with different topological charges are demonstrated. They permit rapid optical vortex switching and topological charge tuning, and also exhibit excellent polarization independency and high efficiency.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Loussert, K. Kushnir, and E. Brasselet, “Q-plates micro-arrays for parallel processing of the photon orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (6)

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Infusino, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. Caputo, and C. Umeton, “Periodic and aperiodic liquid crystal-polymer composite structures realized via spatial light modulator direct holography,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23138–23143 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

2010 (3)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, D. Luo, and Z. Raszewski, “Generating electrically tunable optical vortices by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101114 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Achromatic design for the generation of optical vortices based on radial spiral phase plates,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13599–13605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. Vasnetsov, and M. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

1989 (1)

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barna, V.

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. Vasnetsov, and M. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M.

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasselet, E.

C. Loussert, K. Kushnir, and E. Brasselet, “Q-plates micro-arrays for parallel processing of the photon orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet and C. Loussert, “Electrically controlled topological defects in liquid crystals as tunable spin-orbit encoders for photons,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 719–721 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, J.

Burge, R. E.

Caputo, R.

Carpentier, A. V.

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. M.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

Choi, J. W.

Coerwinkel, R.

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Coullet, P.

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cui, H. Q.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, H. T.

De Luca, A.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, C. Y.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Foo, G.

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gil, L.

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hsieh, P. J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, H. C.

Hu, K.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z. D.

Infusino, M.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kushnir, K.

C. Loussert, K. Kushnir, and E. Brasselet, “Q-plates micro-arrays for parallel processing of the photon orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J. N.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Lin, X. W.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, D. Luo, and Z. Raszewski, “Generating electrically tunable optical vortices by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, Q. Wang, and D. Luo, “Electrically switchable optical vortex generated by a computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16645–16650 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loussert, C.

C. Loussert, K. Kushnir, and E. Brasselet, “Q-plates micro-arrays for parallel processing of the photon orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet and C. Loussert, “Electrically controlled topological defects in liquid crystals as tunable spin-orbit encoders for photons,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 719–721 (2011).
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Lu, J. G.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

Luo, D.

Marrucci, L.

McDuff, R.

Michinel, H.

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
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Ming, Y.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
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Olivieri, D.

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
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A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
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Palacios, D. M.

Qiang, J.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
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Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
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L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Raszewski, Z.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, D. Luo, and Z. Raszewski, “Generating electrically tunable optical vortices by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101114 (2008).
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Ren, H.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
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B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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Salgueiro, J. R.

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
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Santamato, E.

Shen, D.

Z. G. Zheng, W. Hu, G. Zhu, M. Sun, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Brief review of recent research on blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(1), 011601 (2013).
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G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
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Shi, L. Y.

Shieh, H. P. D.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shiu, J. W.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
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Slussarenko, S.

Smith, C. P.

Soskin, M.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. Vasnetsov, and M. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Srivastava, A.

Su, Y.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
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Sun, J. T.

Sun, M.

Sun, X. W.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Umeton, C.

Vasnetsov, M.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. Vasnetsov, and M. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Wang, H. F.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. G.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

Wei, B. Y.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
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White, A. G.

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Woerdman, J.

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Wu, S. T.

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial invited,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial invited,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z. C.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. C.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. G.

Z. G. Zheng, W. Hu, G. Zhu, M. Sun, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Brief review of recent research on blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(1), 011601 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhong, E. W.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Zhu, J. L.

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

A. V. Carpentier, H. Michinel, J. R. Salgueiro, and D. Olivieri, “Making optical vortices with computer-generated holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 76(10), 916–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Loussert, K. Kushnir, and E. Brasselet, “Q-plates micro-arrays for parallel processing of the photon orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, D. Luo, and Z. Raszewski, “Generating electrically tunable optical vortices by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. L. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. W. Zhong, Z. C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. Vasnetsov, and M. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Achromatic design for the generation of optical vortices based on radial spiral phase plates,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13599–13605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, Q. Wang, and D. Luo, “Electrically switchable optical vortex generated by a computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16645–16650 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Infusino, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. Caputo, and C. Umeton, “Periodic and aperiodic liquid crystal-polymer composite structures realized via spatial light modulator direct holography,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23138–23143 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Luo, H. T. Dai, and X. W. Sun, “Polarization-independent electrically tunable/switchable Airy beam based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31318–31323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. P. Torres and L. Torner, Twisted Photons: Applications of Light with Orbital Angular Momentum (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic drawing of a fork grating electrode with m = 1, blue regions refer to the ITO. Refractive index distributions at the black line marked region in the forked PSBPLC cell with (b) no voltage applied and (c) voltage applied.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Micrographs of PSBPLC cell taken with cross polarizers at (a) voltage-off state and (b) voltage-on state with 80 Vrms applied. The scale bar is 50 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The vortex beam generation and detection setup and images of (b) off state and (c) on state of the optical vortex captured by a CCD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Polarization dependent Vη curves of the 1st order optical vortex with 0°, 45° and 90° incident polarizations. (b) EO response of the PSBPLC fork grating.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Micrograph of a PSBPLC fork grating array with m varying from 1 to 4 at 80 Vrms. The scale bar is 100 μm.

Equations (2)

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H = | ψ 1 + ψ 2 | 2 = | exp ( i m θ ) + exp ( i k x ) | 2 = 2 [ 1 + cos ( k x m θ ) ] ,
Γ= 2π λ [ n o (E) n i ]d,

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