Abstract

In the current work, the effect of an annealing process on structural, morphological, and optical behaviors of cadmium sulfide thin films is presented. A chemical bath deposition method for cadmium sulfide deposition is based on the use of glycine as a complexing agent. Cadmium sulfide thin films were grown by chemical bath deposition and annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 0, 100, 150, 200, and 250 °C for 30 minutes. Crystallographic and morphological studies of CdS thin films were performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The optical behavior of CdS thin films was evaluated by UV-Visible spectroscopy and band gap values were calculated by approximation using a Tauc plot. After annealing, densified CdS films formed by nanostructured crystallites exhibit suitable band gap values and present relatively high transmittance in the visible region, allowing their application as a window material for solar cells.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  4. H. Derin and K. Kantarli, “Structural and optical characterization of the thermally evaporated cadmium sulfide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal.41 (1), 61–68, (2009).
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  5. M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  7. E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
    [Crossref]
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  25. M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

L. Kosyachenko and T. Toyama, “Current-voltage characteristics and quantum efficiency spectra of efficient thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.120 (B), 512–520, (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. J. Jassim, A. A. R. A. Zumaila, and A. W. G. A. Ali, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation,” Res. Phys.3, 173–178, (2013).

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Tec-Yam, R. Patiño, and A. I. Oliva, “Chemical bath deposition of CdS films on different substrate orientations,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11 (3), 914–920, (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. J. Ikhmayies and R. N. Ahmad-Bitar, “Characterization of the SnO2:F/CdS:In structures prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.94, 878–883, (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Derin and K. Kantarli, “Structural and optical characterization of the thermally evaporated cadmium sulfide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal.41 (1), 61–68, (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Ravichadran and P. Philominathan, “Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energ.82 (11), 1062–1066, (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Metin and R. Esen, “Annealing studies on CBD grown CdS thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth258 (1–2), 141–148, (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Ramírez-Bon, N. C. Sandoval-India, and F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán, “Structural transition of chemically deposited CdS films on thermal annealing,” J. Phys-Condens. Mat.9 (45), 10051–10058, (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Aguilar-Hernández, J.

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahmad-Bitar, R. N.

S. J. Ikhmayies and R. N. Ahmad-Bitar, “Characterization of the SnO2:F/CdS:In structures prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.94, 878–883, (2010).
[Crossref]

Ali, A. W. G. A.

S. A. J. Jassim, A. A. R. A. Zumaila, and A. W. G. A. Ali, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation,” Res. Phys.3, 173–178, (2013).

Aliyu, M.M.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Altunbas, M.

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Amin, N.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Arias-Carbajal Readigos, A.

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

Astam, A.

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

Ates, A.

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

Au, C.-T.

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Bacaksiz, E.

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boluoudina, M.

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

Bououdina, M.

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

Chelvanathan, P.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Çolakoglu, T.

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contreras-Puente, G.

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

Cullity, B. D.

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3rd ed.

de Melo, O.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Derin, H.

H. Derin and K. Kantarli, “Structural and optical characterization of the thermally evaporated cadmium sulfide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal.41 (1), 61–68, (2009).
[Crossref]

Díaz-Flores, L. L.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, Y.-W.

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Escobar-Morales, B.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Esen, R.

H. Metin and R. Esen, “Annealing studies on CBD grown CdS thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth258 (1–2), 141–148, (2003).
[Crossref]

Espinoza-Beltrán, F. J.

R. Ramírez-Bon, N. C. Sandoval-India, and F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán, “Structural transition of chemically deposited CdS films on thermal annealing,” J. Phys-Condens. Mat.9 (45), 10051–10058, (1997).
[Crossref]

Falcony, C.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Fan, C.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, G.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

Haindl, G.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, L.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hossain, M.S.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Huda, Q.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Ikhmayies, S. J.

S. J. Ikhmayies and R. N. Ahmad-Bitar, “Characterization of the SnO2:F/CdS:In structures prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.94, 878–883, (2010).
[Crossref]

Ingale, A.

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

Islam, M.A.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Jaegermann, W.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Jassim, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Jassim, A. A. R. A. Zumaila, and A. W. G. A. Ali, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation,” Res. Phys.3, 173–178, (2013).

Kantarli, K.

H. Derin and K. Kantarli, “Structural and optical characterization of the thermally evaporated cadmium sulfide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal.41 (1), 61–68, (2009).
[Crossref]

Karim, M.R.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Klein, A.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Kosyachenko, L.

L. Kosyachenko and T. Toyama, “Current-voltage characteristics and quantum efficiency spectra of efficient thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.120 (B), 512–520, (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnakumar, V.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthi, D.

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Kundakci, M.

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

Lozada-Morales, R.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Mahdi, M. A.

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

Mariappan, R.

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Hernández, D.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Mathew, X.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Mathews, N. R.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Mendoza-Pérez, R.

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

Metin, H.

H. Metin and R. Esen, “Annealing studies on CBD grown CdS thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth258 (1–2), 141–148, (2003).
[Crossref]

Mishra, S.

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

Obaid, A. S.

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

Oliva, A. I.

S. Tec-Yam, R. Patiño, and A. I. Oliva, “Chemical bath deposition of CdS films on different substrate orientations,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11 (3), 914–920, (2011).
[Crossref]

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover publications, Inc., 1971), 1st ed.

Pantoja-Enríquez, J.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Parlak, M.

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Patiño, R.

S. Tec-Yam, R. Patiño, and A. I. Oliva, “Chemical bath deposition of CdS films on different substrate orientations,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11 (3), 914–920, (2011).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Hernández, G.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Philominathan, P.

K. Ravichadran and P. Philominathan, “Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energ.82 (11), 1062–1066, (2008).
[Crossref]

Ponnuswamy, V.

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Ragavendar, M.

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramirez-Bon, R.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Ramírez-Bon, R.

R. Ramírez-Bon, N. C. Sandoval-India, and F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán, “Structural transition of chemically deposited CdS films on thermal annealing,” J. Phys-Condens. Mat.9 (45), 10051–10058, (1997).
[Crossref]

Ravichadran, K.

K. Ravichadran and P. Philominathan, “Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energ.82 (11), 1062–1066, (2008).
[Crossref]

Ricardez-Jiménez, C.

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, U. N.

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

Sandoval-India, N. C.

R. Ramírez-Bon, N. C. Sandoval-India, and F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán, “Structural transition of chemically deposited CdS films on thermal annealing,” J. Phys-Condens. Mat.9 (45), 10051–10058, (1997).
[Crossref]

Sankar, C.

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Santana-Rodríguez, G.

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

Sastre-Hernández, J.

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

Schaffner, J.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Sopian, K.

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

Spanheimer, C.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Stock, S. R.

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3rd ed.

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductor (Plenum Press, 1976).

Tec-Yam, S.

S. Tec-Yam, R. Patiño, and A. I. Oliva, “Chemical bath deposition of CdS films on different substrate orientations,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11 (3), 914–920, (2011).
[Crossref]

Tomakin, M.

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Toyama, T.

L. Kosyachenko and T. Toyama, “Current-voltage characteristics and quantum efficiency spectra of efficient thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.120 (B), 512–520, (2014).
[Crossref]

Vargas, H.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Vigil-Galán, O.

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

Ximello-Quiebras, J. N.

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.-X.

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Yildirim, M.

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

Zelaya-Angel, O.

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhao, K.

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Zumaila, A. A. R. A.

S. A. J. Jassim, A. A. R. A. Zumaila, and A. W. G. A. Ali, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation,” Res. Phys.3, 173–178, (2013).

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

Z.-X. Yang, W. Zhong, Y. Deng, C.-T. Au, and Y.-W. Du, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Single-Crystalline Hierarchical CdS Nanostructures Generated by Thermal Evaporation Processes,” Cryst. Growth Des.11 (6), 2172–2176, (2011).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tec-Yam, R. Patiño, and A. I. Oliva, “Chemical bath deposition of CdS films on different substrate orientations,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11 (3), 914–920, (2011).
[Crossref]

Energ. Procedia (1)

M.A. Islam, M.S. Hossain, M.M. Aliyu, P. Chelvanathan, Q. Huda, M.R. Karim, K. Sopian, and N. Amin, “Comparison of Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Grown by CSVT, CBD and Sputtering Techniques,” Energ. Procedia33, 203–213, (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Metin and R. Esen, “Annealing studies on CBD grown CdS thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth258 (1–2), 141–148, (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys-Condens. Mat. (1)

R. Ramírez-Bon, N. C. Sandoval-India, and F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán, “Structural transition of chemically deposited CdS films on thermal annealing,” J. Phys-Condens. Mat.9 (45), 10051–10058, (1997).
[Crossref]

Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc. (1)

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Bououdina, “Characterization of nanocrystalline PbS thin films prepared using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc.15 (5), 564–571, (2012).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

R. Mariappan, V. Ponnuswamy, M. Ragavendar, D. Krishnamoorthi, and C. Sankar, “The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of undoped and Cu doped CdS thin films,” Optik12 (123), 1098–1102, (2012).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

E. Bacaksiz, M. Tomakin, M. Altunbaş, M. Parlak, and T. Çolakoglu, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cd1−xCoxS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B403 (19–20), 3740–3745, (2008).
[Crossref]

Physica E (1)

M. Kundakci, A. Ateş, A. Astam, and M. Yildirim, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS, Cd0.5In0.5S and In2S3 thin films grown by SILAR method,” Physica E40 (3), 600–605, (2008).
[Crossref]

Res. Phys. (1)

S. A. J. Jassim, A. A. R. A. Zumaila, and A. W. G. A. Ali, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation,” Res. Phys.3, 173–178, (2013).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnoloby,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78 (1), 013705 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energ. (2)

A. S. Obaid, Z. Hassan, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Bououdina, “Fabrication and characterisations of n-CdS/p-PbS heterojunction solar cells using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Sol. Energ.89, 143–151, (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Ravichadran and P. Philominathan, “Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energ.82 (11), 1062–1066, (2008).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (5)

R. Mendoza-Pérez, J. Sastre-Hernández, G. Contreras-Puente, and O. Vigil-Galán, “CdTe solar cell degradation studies with the use of CdS as the window material,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93 (1), 79–84, (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Kosyachenko and T. Toyama, “Current-voltage characteristics and quantum efficiency spectra of efficient thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.120 (B), 512–520, (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ikhmayies and R. N. Ahmad-Bitar, “Characterization of the SnO2:F/CdS:In structures prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.94, 878–883, (2010).
[Crossref]

J. N. Ximello-Quiebras, G. Contreras-Puente, J. Aguilar-Hernández, G. Santana-Rodríguez, and A. Arias-Carbajal Readigos, “Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.82(1–2), 263–268, (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, and W. Jaegermann, “Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.95 (3), 816–820, (2011).
[Crossref]

Superlattice. Microst. (1)

A. S. Obaid, M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, and M. Boluoudina, “Preparation of chemically deposited thin films of CdS/PbS solar cell,” Superlattice. Microst.52 (4), 816–823, (2012).
[Crossref]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

H. Derin and K. Kantarli, “Structural and optical characterization of the thermally evaporated cadmium sulfide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal.41 (1), 61–68, (2009).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. Pérez-Hernández, J. Pantoja-Enríquez, B. Escobar-Morales, D. Martínez-Hernández, L. L. Díaz-Flores, C. Ricardez-Jiménez, N. R. Mathews, and X. Mathew, “A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films535, 154–157, (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Mishra, A. Ingale, U. N. Roy, and A. Gupta, “Study of annealing-induced changes in CdS thin films using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films516 (1), 91–98, (2007).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

O. Zelaya-Angel, L. Hernandez, O. de Melo, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, R. Lozada-Morales, C. Falcony, H. Vargas, and R. Ramirez-Bon, “Band-gap shift in CdS: phase transition from cubic to hexagonal on thermal annealing,” Vacuum46 (8–10), 1083–1085, (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductor (Plenum Press, 1976).

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First Solar, Inc., “First Solar Series 3 Black Plus PV Module,” (2014), http://www.firstsolar.com/Home/Technologies-and-Capabilities/PV-Modules/First-Solar-Series-3-Black-Module

First Solar, Inc., “Our Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film technology,” (2014), http://www.firstsolar.com/Home/Technologies-and-Capabilities/PV-Modules/First-Solar-Series-3-Black-Module/CdTe-Technology

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3rd ed.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Typical XRD patterns of CdS thin films as-deposited and annealed at 250 °C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XPS results of CdS nanostructured films as-deposited and annealed at different temperatures: (a) survey spectra, (b) Cd 3d binding energy spectra, and (c) S 2p binding energy spectra.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Typical SEM images of CdS films as deposited and annealed from 100 to 250 °C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Representative images of the CdS nanostructured films obtained by AFM and WSxM software. (a) as deposited and annealed at (b) 100 °C, (c) 150 °C, (d) 200 °C, and (e) 250 °C. 5 μm scan. Error associated with RMS roughness measurements is ±0.54 nm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmittance and (b) absorbance spectra of CdS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Plot of (αhν)2 versus of CdS films as-deposited and annealed at different temperatures.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Relevant structural parameters for as-deposited and annealed CdS films.

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Table 2 Chemical composition of CdS films determined by XPS.

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Table 3 Thickness and band gap of CdS films as function of temperature.

Equations (3)

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t = 0.94 λ B cos θ
( α h ν ) 2 = A ( h ν E g )
α = 1 t ln ( 1 T )

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