Abstract

This paper demonstrates that we can further eliminate the remaining micro pores by hot isostatic press (HIP) approach. The porosity of Nd:LuAG laser ceramics sharply declined from 7 × 10−6 to 5.60 × 10−7 after additional HIP. Annealing is one of the key steps to optimize the quality of vacuum sintered ceramics, such as make the transmittance rise from 79.98% to 81.02% at 1200nm. However, the trend is in the opposite direction for the HIPed Nd:LuAG: fallen from 82.65% to 25.50% at 1200nm. The microstructure of Nd:LuAG studied by microscope, SEM and TEM shows that a large number of pores and a few second phases like Lu2SiO5 appeared along grain boundaries in post-annealed HIPed Nd:LuAG. The gas composition was confirmed as argon by GCMS analysis. By further optimizing the annealing process of HIPed ceramics we found that vacuum annealed at 1600 °C for 10h and oxygen re-annealed at 1200 °C for 30h can reduce pores and make the ceramic quality better, the transmittance can reach 83.05% at 1200nm, and the porosity dropped to 3.2 × 10−7.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. M. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3 transparent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091602 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Tsukuma, “Transparent MgAl2O4 Spinel ceramics produced by HIP post-sintering,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 114(1334), 802–806 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. M. Kuklja, “Defects in yttrium aluminium perovskite and garnetcrystals: atomistic study,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(13), 2953–2967 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. M. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3 transparent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091602 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

K. Tsukuma, “Transparent MgAl2O4 Spinel ceramics produced by HIP post-sintering,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 114(1334), 802–806 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. M. Kuklja, “Defects in yttrium aluminium perovskite and garnetcrystals: atomistic study,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(13), 2953–2967 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. M.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blodgett, D.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bogicevic, C.

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dammak, H.

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dickey, E. C.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z. L.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dumm, J. Q.

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duncan, D.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Endo, T.

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Furusato, I.

A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gilde, G.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, F.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hahn, D.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. P.

H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[Crossref]

Itatani, K.

K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[Crossref]

Karolak, F.

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kishimoto, A.

K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kong, L. B.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuklja, M. M.

M. M. Kuklja, “Defects in yttrium aluminium perovskite and garnetcrystals: atomistic study,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(13), 2953–2967 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kupp, E. R.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. D.

H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H. L.

H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lie, S.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, X. J.

H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. W.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, D. W.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, B. Y.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mah, T. I.

H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martinez, M. A.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

Messing, G. L.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mueller, K. T.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakai, Y.

Parthasarathy, T. A.

H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patel, P.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patterson, P.

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qi, J. Q.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Quarles, G. J.

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Que, W. X.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rabinovitch, Y.

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saito, T.

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shimada, M.

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Simonaitis-Castillo, V. K.

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, A. J.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suchy, D. L.

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tan, G. E. B.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

Tetard, D.

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

Tsujimoto, T.

K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsukuma, K.

K. Tsukuma, “Transparent MgAl2O4 Spinel ceramics produced by HIP post-sintering,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 114(1334), 802–806 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. F.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, N.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamaga, I.

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yi, Q.

Yoshida, K.

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
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Zhang, J.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T. S.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S. M.

Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. (1)

H. D. Lee, T. I. Mah, and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Low-cost processing of fine grained transparent yttrium aluminum garnet,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 25(3), 147–152 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (9)

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Synthesis of transparent nd-doped HfO2–Y2O3 using HIP,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(2), 359–364 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, I. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by a solid state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, X. J. Liu, and L. P. Huang, “Fabrication of transparent cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) ceramics by a solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3226–3228 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(6), 1517–1522 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. J. Stevenson, X. Li, M. A. Martinez, J. M. Anderson, D. L. Suchy, E. R. Kupp, E. C. Dickey, K. T. Mueller, and G. L. Messing, “Effect of SiO2 on densification and microstructure development in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(5), 1380–1387 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, E. C. Dickey, J. Q. Dumm, V. K. Simonaitis-Castillo, and G. J. Quarles, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(7), 1456–1463 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(7), 1927–1933 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Gilde, P. Patel, P. Patterson, D. Blodgett, D. Duncan, and D. Hahn, “Evaluation of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing parameters on the optical properties of spinel,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(10), 2747–2751 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Tsukuma, “Transparent MgAl2O4 Spinel ceramics produced by HIP post-sintering,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 114(1334), 802–806 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

K. Itatani, T. Tsujimoto, and A. Kishimoto, “Thermal and optical properties of transparent magnesium oxide ceramics fabricated by post hot-isostatic pressing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(4–5), 639–645 (2006).
[Crossref]

j. mater. proc. tech. (1)

Y. Rabinovitch, C. Bogicevic, F. Karolak, D. Tetard, and H. Dammak, “Freeze-dried nanometric neodymium-doped YAG powders for transparent ceramics,” j. mater. proc. tech. 199(1–3), 314–320 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. M. Kuklja, “Defects in yttrium aluminium perovskite and garnetcrystals: atomistic study,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(13), 2953–2967 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

M. Shimada, T. Endo, T. Saito, and T. Sato, “Fabrication of transparent spinel polycrystalline materials,” Mater. Lett. 28(4–6), 413–415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

W. Zhang, T. C. Lu, N. Wei, B. Y. Ma, F. Li, Z. W. Lu, and J. Q. Qi, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 685–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Lie, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: Processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 41(1–2), 20–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram for the procedure of Nd:LuAG transparent ceramics by vacuum sintering and sinter plus HIP methods.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 X-ray diffraction pattern of transparent Nd:LuAG ceramics which was sintered by HIP(A) and under vacuum(B).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photograph of vacuum-sintered and HIP-sintered specimens before and after annealing by traditional annealing methods. (the thickness of all the samples is 5mm).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In-line transmittances spectra of vacuum-sintered and HIP-sintered specimens before and after annealing by traditional annealing methods. Inset: magnified transmittance spectrum between 950nm to 1200nm. (the thickness of all the samples is 5mm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission microscopy micrographs of the surface (A) and interior (B) of the Nd:LuAG ceramic sintered using HIP methods after annealing in air.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM micrographs of the fractured surface of the Nd:LuAG ceramics. (A) Vacuum-sintered specimen before annealing (B) HIP-sintered specimen before annealing (C) Vacuum-sintered specimen after annealing. Image of a typical triple junction of grains (Inset upper right) (D) HIP-sintered specimen after annealing, Image of a typical triple junction of grains where a secondary phase has crystallized (Inset upper right). Magnified image (Inset, lower right) shows pores appear along the grain-boundary.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Characterization of the Nd:LuAG ceramic sintered by sinter plus HIP approach. (A) High-resolution TEM image. Electron diffraction pattern (Inset, upper left) of Nd:LuAG sintered by HIP before annealing. (B) TEM image of the typical triple junction of grains where a secondary phase has crystallized. Electron diffraction pattern (Inset, upper left) of secondary phase (a).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 GCMS determination of the Nd:LuAG ceramic sintered by HIP.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 In-line transmittances spectra of HIP-sintered specimens as-prepared, vacuum annealed at 1600 °C, vacuum annealed at 1600 °C and oxygen re-annealed at 1200 °C . Inset: magnified transmittance spectrum between 950nm to 1200nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Composition of different areas which shown in Fig. 7(B).

Equations (1)

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Si O 2 + 5 6 A l Al x + 1 2 L u Lu x S i Al + 1 3 V Lu + 1 6 L u 3 A l 5 O 12 .

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