Abstract

For improving the light quality of a white LED, the feasibility of QDs was seriously considered and their longevity as well as efficiency was evaluated. For that purpose, the most similar combination of phosphors to the commercial light-converting system was selected and fabricated as the hybrid phosphor of Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+ and CdSe/ZnS QDs in remote type. To ensure competitive, a frame of reference with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+ and (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu2+ was made and two cases were compared. When the hybrid phosphor with QDs was used, it was found that the luminous flux was increased by 20%, compared to the conventional combination of inorganic phosphor in commercial level. Also, CRI value can be controlled up to 90. But, the LED PKG reliability of a white LED with QDs in remote type still needs to be improved. The luminous flux of the hybrid phosphor with QDs was decreased to 91% within 1000 hours under the operating condition of 85°C and 85% of relative humidity, while that of conventional combination of inorganic phosphors was kept in stable luminescence. Substantial variation of color coordinates were observed. By tracking the changes of the R9 value over the time, it was found that the quantum structure had not been sustained during the operation. More work on the stability of QDs in phosphor plate should be done for device application.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (2)

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kim, K. C. Choi, Y. K. Baek, and P. W. Shin, “Enhanced luminescence stability of quantum dot-based inorganic nanocomposite particles for white-light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Lett. 124(1), 129–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Kim, W. S. Song, and H. S. Yang, “Color-converting bilayered composite plate of quantum-dot-polymer for high-color rendering white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2885–2888 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ryu, J. H. Lee, W. Y. Sun, and M. R. Cho, “Degradation behaviors of InGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes by chip size,” J. Info. Disp. 14(4), 131–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Song, S. H. Lee, and H. S. Yang, “Fabrication of warm, high CRI white LED using non-cadmium quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1468–1473 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

L. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. W. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, Y. Li, and T. Takeda, “Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications,” Materials 3(6), 3777–3793 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Takahashi and S. Adachi, “Mn4+ Activated Red Photoluminescence in K2SiF6 Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(12), E183–E188 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

T. Takahashi and S. Adachi, “Mn4+ Activated Red Photoluminescence in K2SiF6 Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(12), E183–E188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ashkenasy, N.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baek, Y. K.

Y. K. Kim, K. C. Choi, Y. K. Baek, and P. W. Shin, “Enhanced luminescence stability of quantum dot-based inorganic nanocomposite particles for white-light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Lett. 124(1), 129–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertoni, C.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. W. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. R.

J. H. Ryu, J. H. Lee, W. Y. Sun, and M. R. Cho, “Degradation behaviors of InGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes by chip size,” J. Info. Disp. 14(4), 131–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. C.

Y. K. Kim, K. C. Choi, Y. K. Baek, and P. W. Shin, “Enhanced luminescence stability of quantum dot-based inorganic nanocomposite particles for white-light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Lett. 124(1), 129–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dunn, S.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eychmüller, A.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fefer, E.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gallardo, D. E.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaponik, N.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, F.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorer, S.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hirosaki, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, Y. Li, and T. Takeda, “Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications,” Materials 3(6), 3777–3793 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hodest, G.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. K.

Y. K. Kim, K. C. Choi, Y. K. Baek, and P. W. Shin, “Enhanced luminescence stability of quantum dot-based inorganic nanocomposite particles for white-light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Lett. 124(1), 129–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kronik, L.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Ryu, J. H. Lee, W. Y. Sun, and M. R. Cho, “Degradation behaviors of InGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes by chip size,” J. Info. Disp. 14(4), 131–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Leibovitch, M.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, Y. Li, and T. Takeda, “Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications,” Materials 3(6), 3777–3793 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li Pira, N.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

L. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. W. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, R. S.

L. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. W. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lupton, J. M.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[Crossref]

O’Dwyer, C.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paderi, M.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Repetto, P.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogach, A. L.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanov, S. G.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Ryu, J. H. Lee, W. Y. Sun, and M. R. Cho, “Degradation behaviors of InGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes by chip size,” J. Info. Disp. 14(4), 131–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapira, Y.

L. Kronik, N. Ashkenasy, M. Leibovitch, E. Fefer, Y. Shapira, S. Gorer, and G. Hodest, “Surface States and Photovoltaic Effects in CdSe Quantum Dot Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(5), 1748–1755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shin, P. W.

Y. K. Kim, K. C. Choi, Y. K. Baek, and P. W. Shin, “Enhanced luminescence stability of quantum dot-based inorganic nanocomposite particles for white-light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Lett. 124(1), 129–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, W. S.

Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W. Y.

J. H. Ryu, J. H. Lee, W. Y. Sun, and M. R. Cho, “Degradation behaviors of InGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes by chip size,” J. Info. Disp. 14(4), 131–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi and S. Adachi, “Mn4+ Activated Red Photoluminescence in K2SiF6 Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(12), E183–E188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takeda, T.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, Y. Li, and T. Takeda, “Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications,” Materials 3(6), 3777–3793 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, W.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, R. J.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, Y. Li, and T. Takeda, “Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications,” Materials 3(6), 3777–3793 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. S.

Yang, S. J.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. W.

L. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. W. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Xia, L. Zhou, F. Gong, and L. Wu, “Novel quantum dots: Water-based CdTeSe/ZnS and YAG hybrid phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 139(1), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Excitation and emission spectra of primary phosphors which are used in this experiment: (a) Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+, (b) (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu2+, and (c) CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photograph of two sets of phosphor plate on glass substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photograph of two sets of light-on white LEDs with phosphor plates.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission spectra of two sets of the white LEDs in integrating sphere.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Chromaticity coordinates and color temperature of each sample in Table 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Excitation and emission spectra of two set of phosphor plates: (a) Inorganic phosphor combination (Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+ + (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu2+) and (b) hybrid phosphor combination (Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+ + CdSe/ZnS QDs).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Luminescence degradation of two sets of WLEDs during operation at 350 mA and 18V under environments of 85% and 85 °C.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variation of the color coordinates of (a) Cx and (b) Cy over the time. The samples are the case of WLEDs presented in Fig. 7 under same conditions.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variation of spectra over the time from the WLED with hybrid type phosphor combination.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variation of CRI, R9 and CCT over the time. All the data were obtained at WLED operating condition under 85% and 85 °C.

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