Abstract

Hexagonal nanosheets of Sb2Te3 single crystals with uniform morphology are successfully synthesized through a solvothermal method. We experimentally demonstrate that topological insulator Sb2Te3 as an optical media can be used for the generation of ring-shaped beams based on a giant optical nonlinearity and the effect of graded-index plasma lens. Good propagation properties in free space are exhibited by the generated ring-shaped beam and the dark spot size of ring-shaped beams can be conveniently controlled by adjusting the power of the pump beam. We also find that it is more easily to generate a ring-shaped beam in the high concentration Sb2Te3 dispersion solution and the divergence angle of the ring-shaped beam increases as the concentration of dispersion solution increase.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, P. H. Tang, G. B. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0900508 (2014).

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Tan, X. Fu, and Y. Deng, “Generation of ring-shaped beams by a graded-index plasma lens,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125202 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. M. Coelho, G. A. S. Ribeiro, A. Malachias, V. L. Pimentel, W. S. Silva, D. D. Reis, M. S. C. Mazzoni, and R. Magalhães-Paniago, “Temperature-induced coexistence of a conducting bilayer and the bulk-terminated surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3.,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4517–4521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

G. Zhang, B. Kirk, L. A. Jauregui, H. Yang, X. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Rational Synthesis of Ultrathin n-Type Bi2Te3 Nanowires with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 56–60 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R. W. Siegel, T. Borca-Tasciuc, and G. Ramanath, “A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 233–240 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

X. Chen, X. C. Ma, K. He, J. F. Jia, and Q. K. Xue, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Topological Insulators,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1162–1165 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1209–1218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Seung, K. Worasom, J. C. Judy, L. Keji, K. Desheng, M. Stefan, A. K. Michael, Z. X. Shen, and Y. Cui, “Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3118–3122 (2010).

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).

2008 (2)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Li, B. Zhou, L. Pu, and J. J. Zhu, “Electrodeposition of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3 derived alloy nanotube Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(3), 771–775 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Larson, “Effects of uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure on the valence band maximum in Sb2Te3: An electronic structure study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205113 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. E. Foos, R. M. Stroud, and A. D. Berry, “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride,” Nano Lett. 1(12), 693–695 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, W. Jhe, and Z. Wang, “Atom guiding and cooling in a dark hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 509–513 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1209–1218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansil, A.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, A. D.

E. E. Foos, R. M. Stroud, and A. D. Berry, “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride,” Nano Lett. 1(12), 693–695 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, J.

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Borca-Tasciuc, T.

R. J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R. W. Siegel, T. Borca-Tasciuc, and G. Ramanath, “A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 233–240 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

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Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
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Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).

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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
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R. J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R. W. Siegel, T. Borca-Tasciuc, and G. Ramanath, “A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 233–240 (2012).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
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[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Worasom, K.

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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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G. Zhang, B. Kirk, L. A. Jauregui, H. Yang, X. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Rational Synthesis of Ultrathin n-Type Bi2Te3 Nanowires with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 56–60 (2012).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Xu, H. Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

G. Zhang, B. Kirk, L. A. Jauregui, H. Yang, X. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Rational Synthesis of Ultrathin n-Type Bi2Te3 Nanowires with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 56–60 (2012).
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J. Yin, Y. Zhu, W. Jhe, and Z. Wang, “Atom guiding and cooling in a dark hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 509–513 (1998).
[Crossref]

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G. Zhang, B. Kirk, L. A. Jauregui, H. Yang, X. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Rational Synthesis of Ultrathin n-Type Bi2Te3 Nanowires with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 56–60 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, P. H. Tang, G. B. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0900508 (2014).

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. C.

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. B.

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Q.

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

R. J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R. W. Siegel, T. Borca-Tasciuc, and G. Ramanath, “A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 233–240 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. H.

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, P. H. Tang, G. B. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0900508 (2014).

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. B.

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

Zhou, B.

X. H. Li, B. Zhou, L. Pu, and J. J. Zhu, “Electrodeposition of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3 derived alloy nanotube Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(3), 771–775 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. J.

X. H. Li, B. Zhou, L. Pu, and J. J. Zhu, “Electrodeposition of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3 derived alloy nanotube Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(3), 771–775 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T. J.

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, W. Jhe, and Z. Wang, “Atom guiding and cooling in a dark hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 509–513 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y. H.

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Chen, X. C. Ma, K. He, J. F. Jia, and Q. K. Xue, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Topological Insulators,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1162–1165 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. B. Zhao, X. H. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, T. J. Zhu, J. P. Tu, and X. B. Zhang, “Bismuth telluride nanotubes and the effects on the thermoelectric properties of nanotube-containing nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062111 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

X. H. Li, B. Zhou, L. Pu, and J. J. Zhu, “Electrodeposition of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3 derived alloy nanotube Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(3), 771–775 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, P. H. Tang, G. B. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0900508 (2014).

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

C. Tan, X. Fu, and Y. Deng, “Generation of ring-shaped beams by a graded-index plasma lens,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125202 (2013).
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Laser Phys. (1)

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (5)

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1209–1218 (2010).
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S. H. Seung, K. Worasom, J. C. Judy, L. Keji, K. Desheng, M. Stefan, A. K. Michael, Z. X. Shen, and Y. Cui, “Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3118–3122 (2010).

E. E. Foos, R. M. Stroud, and A. D. Berry, “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride,” Nano Lett. 1(12), 693–695 (2001).
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G. Zhang, B. Kirk, L. A. Jauregui, H. Yang, X. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Rational Synthesis of Ultrathin n-Type Bi2Te3 Nanowires with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 56–60 (2012).
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P. M. Coelho, G. A. S. Ribeiro, A. Malachias, V. L. Pimentel, W. S. Silva, D. D. Reis, M. S. C. Mazzoni, and R. Magalhães-Paniago, “Temperature-induced coexistence of a conducting bilayer and the bulk-terminated surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3.,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4517–4521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R. W. Siegel, T. Borca-Tasciuc, and G. Ramanath, “A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 233–240 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).

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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, W. Jhe, and Z. Wang, “Atom guiding and cooling in a dark hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 509–513 (1998).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Larson, “Effects of uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure on the valence band maximum in Sb2Te3: An electronic structure study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205113 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, F. Meier, J. H. Dil, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of Time-Reversal-Protected Single-Dirac-Cone Topological-Insulator States in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 146401 (2009).
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A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Low-magnification FESEM image (b) High-magnification FESEM image of Sb2Te3 nanosheets. (c) TEM image of a single perfect hexagonal nanosheet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Topographic AFM images of the Sb2Te3 nanosheet. (b) The height profiles corresponding to (a). (c) Three-dimensional images corresponding to (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) XRD patterns of the as-prepared Sb2Te3 nanosheets. (b) Raman spectra of Sb2Te3 at 632nm laser excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental scheme for the generation of ring-shaped beams. M1, silver-coated plane mirror; A1 and A2, attenuators; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; NM, nonlinear material. Inset maps (a) and (b) show the initial spatial intensity distributions of pump and probe beams, respectively. Inset map (c) displays four kinds of nonlinear samples, from left to right in the order: IPA solution, Sb2Te3 dispersion solutions in IPA with a concentration of 156, 312, and 625 ug/ml.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial intensity distributions of RSB at Pfs of (a) 0, (b) 6, (c) 13, and (d) 27 mW and (e) corresponding cross line (y = 0) of RSB when Pfs is tuned.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The DSS of RSBs generated in four types of medium when Pfs is tuned. Spatial intensity profiles of the probe beam after passed through four dispersion solutions at concentration of (a) 625 ug/ml (b) 1.25 mg/ml (c) 2.5 mg/ml, and (d) 5 mg/ml.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity distribution of RSBs in free space propagation at different propagation distances of (a)20, (b) 25, (c) 30, (d) 35, (e) 40, (f) 45 cm, and (g) 450 cm when Pfs is 8 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Beam widths of probe beams after passed through different medium at different linear propagation distance D. (b) Relationships between the DSS of RSBs generated in Sb2Te3 dispersion solution with different concentrations and D when Pfs is 8 mW.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Psubt varies with DSS in the four kinds of Sb2Te3 dispersion solution. (b) The propagation of generated RSBs in the free space.

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