Abstract

We report a method based on Malus’ law to directly measure the dielectric frame orientation of monoclinic crystals with an accuracy of 0.3°. This technique was validated by the study of Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3, Sn2P2S6, BiB3O6 and Eu3+:Y2SiO5.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon Press, 1957).
  2. B. Boulanger and J. Zyss, “Nonlinear optical properties,” International Tables of Crystallography, D, 178–219 (2006).
  3. D. Haertle, A. Guarino, J. Hajfler, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of Sn2P2S6 at visible and infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express13(6), 2047–2057 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. N. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy, Part I Principles and Methods, 5th edition (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1965).
  7. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd Edition (Addison Wesley, 1994).
  8. C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aka, G.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohaty, L.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boulanger, B.

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, M. D.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gadret, G.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

Haertle, D.

Hajfler, J.

Hellwig, H.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joly, S.

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liebertz, J.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangin, J.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ménaert, B.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Pelenc, D.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petit, Y.

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Porée, F.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salvestrini, J. P.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Segonds, P.

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wyon, C.

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zaccaro, J.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(4), 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys.88(1), 240–244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. Petit, S. Joly, P. Segonds, and B. Boulanger, “Recent advances in monoclinic crystals,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 920–937 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterizations of YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd: YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(8), 975–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. N. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy, Part I Principles and Methods, 5th edition (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1965).

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd Edition (Addison Wesley, 1994).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon Press, 1957).

B. Boulanger and J. Zyss, “Nonlinear optical properties,” International Tables of Crystallography, D, 178–219 (2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Two possible configurations between the crystallographic frame (a, b, c) and the dielectric frame (d1, d2, d3) in a monoclinic crystal. b-axis is the special axis. λ is the wavelength of the propagating light. b) Conoscopy patterns at λ0 = 0.633 μm through BiB3O6 slab with two polished faces perpendicular to b-axis where (d1, d2, d3) is the dielectric frame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme (a) and picture (b) of the rotating monoclinic slab cut perpendicularly to the special axis, inserted between two crossed polarizers and irradiated by a tunable laser beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted OPO (blue curve) and He-Ne (red curve) power as a function of time when the BiB3O6 slab is rotating continuously between crossed polarizers. In the insert, the phase shift resulting from the measurement at two different wavelengths, Δφ (λ) = φ(λ) - φ(λ0), is shown. Grey area is the selected part of consecutive minima interpolated with a second order polynomial to convert the time scale in seconds to angle in degrees.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Crystal orientations and magnitudes of φ(λ) of Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 (a) and (b), Sn2P2S6 (c) and (d), BiB3O6 (e) and (f). The crystallographic axes a, b, c and β-angle are drawn on the crystal pictures, as well as the dielectric axes d1, d2, d3 and φ(λ0) at λ0 = 0.633 µm showing the two possible configurations of orientations between the crystallographic and dielectric frames.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eu3+:Y2SiO5: a) crystallographic axes a, b, c, dielectric axes d1, d2, d3, and β-angle drawn on the crystal picture, b) magnitude of the angle φ as a function of the wavelength λ .

Equations (1)

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P t (λ)= 2 1 P 0 sin 2 [ 2φ(λ) ]{ 1cos[ 2π λ 1 L( n 3 (λ) n 2 (λ)) ] }+ P r

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