Abstract

A novel and selective approach to obtain highly stable and capping nanospheres of crystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) via solution growth in cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate-thiourea-ligand-pH buffer systems using a Taguchi experimental design is presented. CdS characterization is carried out by laser diffraction particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Synthesized nanospheres of crystalline CdS with an average crystal particle diameter of 37.5 nm and a capping layer thickness of 17.7–35.7 nm (73 to 115 nm as capped nanoparticles) keep size and form stable in aqueous solution. These crystalline CdS nanospheres exhibit a 2.46 eV band gap, as well as, an optical bandwidth comprises in the visible range with potential applications in solar cells.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).
  4. C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).
  5. S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Abdilahzadeh and F. E. Ghodsi, “Growth, characterization, and studying of sol-gel derived CdS nanocrystalline thin films incorporated in polyethyleneglycol: effects of post-heat treatment,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.105, 249–262 (2012)
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).
  13. A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. L. Leal-Cruz and M. I. Pech-Canul, “In situ synthesis of Si3N4 in the Na2SiF6-N2 system via CVD: kinetics and mechanism of solid-precursor decomposition,” Solid State Ionics177, 3529–3536 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).
  17. Ranjit K. Roy, A Primer on the Taguchi Method (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2010).
  18. S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).
  19. B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3.
  20. P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals Of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer, 2010), 4.
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Abdilahzadeh and F. E. Ghodsi, “Growth, characterization, and studying of sol-gel derived CdS nanocrystalline thin films incorporated in polyethyleneglycol: effects of post-heat treatment,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.105, 249–262 (2012)
[CrossRef]

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

2011 (7)

N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Singh and P. Chauhan, “Synthesis and structural properties of wurtzite type CdS nanoparticles,” Chalcogenide Lett.6, 421–426 (2009).

2007 (1)

A. L. Leal-Cruz and M. I. Pech-Canul, “In situ synthesis of Si3N4 in the Na2SiF6-N2 system via CVD: kinetics and mechanism of solid-precursor decomposition,” Solid State Ionics177, 3529–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, “Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by a novel and simple one-step, solid state reaction in the presence of nonionic surfactant,” Mater. Lett.57, 2755–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abdilahzadeh, A.

A. Abdilahzadeh and F. E. Ghodsi, “Growth, characterization, and studying of sol-gel derived CdS nanocrystalline thin films incorporated in polyethyleneglycol: effects of post-heat treatment,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.105, 249–262 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Afraz-Borujeni, A. R.

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amaral, M.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Apolinar-Iribea, A.

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

Bagheri, A.

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berman-Mendoza, D.

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

Bryant, G. W.

C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).

Cardona, M.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals Of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer, 2010), 4.
[CrossRef]

Castillo, S. J.

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

Chauhan, P.

V. Singh and P. Chauhan, “Synthesis and structural properties of wurtzite type CdS nanoparticles,” Chalcogenide Lett.6, 421–426 (2009).

Cullity, B. D.

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3.

Das, G. C.

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dey, R.

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebeid, M. E.

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

El-Raheem, A.

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

El-Shanshoury, R.

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

Elsilk, S. E.

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

Fernández, A. J. S.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Ge, X.

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghodsi, F. E.

A. Abdilahzadeh and F. E. Ghodsi, “Growth, characterization, and studying of sol-gel derived CdS nanocrystalline thin films incorporated in polyethyleneglycol: effects of post-heat treatment,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.105, 249–262 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Hassan, J. J.

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, Z.

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joo, O. S.

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Junkermeier, C. E.

C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).

Kalasad, M. N.

M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M. R.

N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).

Leal-Cruz, A. L.

A. L. Leal-Cruz and M. I. Pech-Canul, “In situ synthesis of Si3N4 in the Na2SiF6-N2 system via CVD: kinetics and mechanism of solid-precursor decomposition,” Solid State Ionics177, 3529–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. P.

C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).

Liu, Z.

W. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, “Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by a novel and simple one-step, solid state reaction in the presence of nonionic surfactant,” Mater. Lett.57, 2755–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lokhande, D. C.

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahdi, M. A.

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, S.

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

Mazumder, S.

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, M. K.

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohd Bakhori, S. K.

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mulimani, B. G.

M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murugadoss, G.

N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).

Najafi, M.

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, P.N.

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

Ng, S. S.

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nieto, M. A.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Nithyaja, B.

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

Norwood, R. A.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F. J.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Pawar, B. S.

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pawar, S. M.

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pech-Canul, M. I.

A. L. Leal-Cruz and M. I. Pech-Canul, “In situ synthesis of Si3N4 in the Na2SiF6-N2 system via CVD: kinetics and mechanism of solid-precursor decomposition,” Solid State Ionics177, 3529–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rabinal, M. K.

M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

Rafati, A. A.

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rajagopal-Reddy, V.

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

Rajesh-Kumar, B.

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

Ramamurthy, N.

N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).

Ramírez-Bon, R.

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

Roy, Ranjit K.

Ranjit K. Roy, A Primer on the Taguchi Method (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2010).

Salgueiredo, E.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Silva, R. F.

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Singh, V.

V. Singh and P. Chauhan, “Synthesis and structural properties of wurtzite type CdS nanoparticles,” Chalcogenide Lett.6, 421–426 (2009).

Srinivasa-Rao, B.

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

Stock, S. R.

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3.

Subba-Rao., T.

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

Thomas, J.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vishnu, K.

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

Wang, G.

W. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, “Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by a novel and simple one-step, solid state reaction in the presence of nonionic surfactant,” Mater. Lett.57, 2755–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, “Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by a novel and simple one-step, solid state reaction in the presence of nonionic surfactant,” Mater. Lett.57, 2755–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. Y.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals Of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer, 2010), 4.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Afr. J. Biotechnol. (1)

A. El-Raheem, R. El-Shanshoury, S. E. Elsilk, and M. E. Ebeid, “Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T,” Afr. J. Biotechnol.11, 7957–7965 (2012).

Chalcogenide Lett. (3)

V. Singh and P. Chauhan, “Synthesis and structural properties of wurtzite type CdS nanoparticles,” Chalcogenide Lett.6, 421–426 (2009).

B. Srinivasa-Rao, B. Rajesh-Kumar, V. Rajagopal-Reddy, and T. Subba-Rao., “Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation technique,,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 177–185 (2011).

S. J. Castillo, A. Apolinar-Iribea, D. Berman-Mendoza, and R. Ramírez-Bon, “Characterization of CdS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition using glycine as complexing agent,” Chalcogenide Lett.8, 631–636 (2011).

Chem. Commun. (1)

Y. Yin, X. Xu, X. Ge, C. Xia, and Z. Zhang, “Synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in situ using γ-radiation,” Chem. Commun.1998, 1641–1642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, J. H. Kim, O. S. Joo, and D. C. Lokhande, “Recent status of chemical bath deposition metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11, 117–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanomater. (1)

S. Mazumder, R. Dey, M. K. Mitra, S. Mukherjee, and G. C. Das, “Review: biofunctionalized Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine,” J. Nanomater.2009, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Nithyaja, K. Vishnu, S. Mathew, P. Radhakrishnan, and P.N. Nampoori, “Studies on CdS nanoparticles prepared in DNA and bovine serum albumin based biotemplates,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 064704 (2012).

J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. N. Kalasad, M. K. Rabinal, and B. G. Mulimani, “Facile synthesis of bioconjugated fluorescent CdS nanoparticles of tunable light emission,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.43, 305301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Charact. (1)

A. A. Rafati, A. R. Afraz-Borujeni, M. Najafi, and A. Bagheri, “Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Charact.62, 94–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, “Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by a novel and simple one-step, solid state reaction in the presence of nonionic surfactant,” Mater. Lett.57, 2755–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J. (1)

N. Ramamurthy, M. R. Kumar, and G. Murugadoss, “Synthesis and study of optical properties of CdS nanoparticles using effective surfactants,” Nanosci. Nanotechno. Int. J.1, 12–16 (2011).

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 103–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

C. E. Junkermeier, J. P. Lewis, and G. W. Bryant, “Amorphous nature of small CdS nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. B.79, 125323 (2009).

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (1)

A. Abdilahzadeh and F. E. Ghodsi, “Growth, characterization, and studying of sol-gel derived CdS nanocrystalline thin films incorporated in polyethyleneglycol: effects of post-heat treatment,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.105, 249–262 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics (1)

A. L. Leal-Cruz and M. I. Pech-Canul, “In situ synthesis of Si3N4 in the Na2SiF6-N2 system via CVD: kinetics and mechanism of solid-precursor decomposition,” Solid State Ionics177, 3529–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. A. Mahdi, Z. Hassan, S. S. Ng, J. J. Hassan, and S. K. Mohd Bakhori, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films prepared by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films520, 3477–3484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vaccuum (1)

E. Salgueiredo, M. Amaral, M. A. Nieto, A. J. S. Fernández, F. J. Oliveira, and R. F. Silva, “HFCVD deposition parameters optimized by Taguchi Matrix Vacuum,” Vaccuum85, 701–704 (2011).

Other (3)

Ranjit K. Roy, A Primer on the Taguchi Method (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2010).

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice Hall, 2001), 3.

P. Y. Yu and M. Cardona, Fundamentals Of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer, 2010), 4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of CdS particles obtained for each trial under the conditions of L9 Taguchi experimental design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM photomicrographs of CdS micro and nanoparticles obtained for each trial under conditions of the L9 Taguchi experimental design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Main effects of the processing parameters on the formation of crystalline CdS nanospheres.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRD pattern of CdS nanospheres synthesized under optimal conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM photomicrograph and EDS spectrum of CdS nanospheres obtained under optimal conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM photomicrograph of CdS nanospheres after nine months of processing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Particle size distribution by duplicate of CdS nanospheres obtained under optimal processing conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical (a) transmission and (b) absorbance spectra of CdS nanospheres.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(αhν)2 versus of CdS nanoparticles.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 L9 Taguchi orthogonal array for the synthesis of CdS particles.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Main morphological and chemical characteristics of CdS particles.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Relevant structural parameters of CdS nanospheres obtained under optimal conditions.

Equations (3)

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t = 0.94 λ B cos θ
t c = t p c t 2
α h ν = A ( h ν E g ) 1 / 2

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