Abstract

An easy fabrication approach for highly c-axis oriented Inorganic-Organic (IO) mixed hybrid semiconductor thin films has been demonstrated for the first time. A simple vacuum deposition technique followed by chemical processing is utilized to fabricate controlled thin films of wide range of selective compositions from R-PbI4(1-y)Br4y (R = organic; y = 0 to 1) type IO hybrids. These thin films are alternative stack of inorganic and organic nanoscale layers, resembles multiple quantum wells. As a result, they show several novel features including tunable strong room-temperature excitons over a broad spectral range from 380 nm to 520 nm. Structural and in situ optical studies confirm that the methodology can be directly adoptable in top-down technology and also extendable for many varieties of inorganic-organic frameworks. The device quality fabrication process and optoelectronic multi-functionality has been demonstrated by template based 3D microstructures, exciton PL imaging and photodetector response.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).
  9. Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).

Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Matsushima, K. Fujita, and T. Tsutsui, “High field-effect hole mobility in organic-inorganic hybrid thin films prepared by vacuum vapor deposition technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 9A/B), L1199–L1201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikegami, “Spectroscopic study of J aggregates of amphiphilic merocyanine dyes formed in their pure Langmuir films,” J. Chem. Phys.121, 2337–2341 (2004).

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abid, H.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abid, Y.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S.

S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).

Aono, M.

N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bampoulis, P.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).

S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).

Calabrese, J.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chess, C. A.

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chondroudis, K.

D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dammak, T.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DeHaven, P. W.

D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrakopoulos, C. D.

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducasse, L.

I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, V. K.

V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, K.

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Era, M.

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Evagelinou, T.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feild, C. A.

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisawa, J.

M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

T. Matsushima, K. Fujita, and T. Tsutsui, “High field-effect hole mobility in organic-inorganic hybrid thin films prepared by vacuum vapor deposition technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 9A/B), L1199–L1201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guloy, A. M.

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y. C.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, R. L.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herron, N.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hlil, E. K.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, K.

K. Ikegami, “Spectroscopic study of J aggregates of amphiphilic merocyanine dyes formed in their pure Langmuir films,” J. Chem. Phys.121, 2337–2341 (2004).

Ishihara, T.

T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishi-Hayase, J.

M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, N. L.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, C. R.

D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawabata, Y.

Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitazawa, N.

N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koutselas, I.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koutselas, I. B.

I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, S.

J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. M.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. K.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maratou, E.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsushima, T.

T. Matsushima, K. Fujita, and T. Tsutsui, “High field-effect hole mobility in organic-inorganic hybrid thin films prepared by vacuum vapor deposition technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 9A/B), L1199–L1201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maxcy, K. R.

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medeiros, D. R.

D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitzi, D. B.

Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyasaka, T.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlayah, A.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, T. N.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nageswara Rao, K.

K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pagona, G.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Papavassiliou, G. C.

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pradeesh, K.

K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prikas, M. T.

D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Z. W.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rikukawa, M.

Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Samet, A.

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanui, K.

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snaith, H. J.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, J.

J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, Y.

Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayu, T.

J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Teuscher, J.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, D. L.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Matsushima, K. Fujita, and T. Tsutsui, “High field-effect hole mobility in organic-inorganic hybrid thin films prepared by vacuum vapor deposition technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 9A/B), L1199–L1201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya Prakash, G.

V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).

Wang, H. F.

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xing, R. B.

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, A.

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, F. M.

Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (2)

Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Ikegami, “Spectroscopic study of J aggregates of amphiphilic merocyanine dyes formed in their pure Langmuir films,” J. Chem. Phys.121, 2337–2341 (2004).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

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S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Various intercalation strategies adopted for fabrication of mixed IO hybrid thin films of (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y: y = 0 to 1

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) X-ray diffraction pattern of thermal vapor deposited thin films of PbI2, PbBr2 and PbI1.0Br1.0. (B) X-ray diffraction pattern of intercalated mixed IO hybrid thin films of (C6H9C2H4 NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y: y = 0 to 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Shows the systematic shift in the (002) characteristic XRD peak (from Fig. 2) with increase in doping value y. (b) Shows the monotonous increment in d-spacing with increase in the Br composition in the inorganic network (C). Schematic and possible representation of inorganic network for (R- NH3)2 PbI4(1-y)Br4y at y = 0.5 (organic is not shown here) [23].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room temperature (a) UV-visible absorption and (b) Photoluminescence (λex~337 nm) spectra of the intercalated mixed IO hybrid thin films of (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y:y = 0 to 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PL spectral-time intensity images for real time monitoring the evolution of excitons PL from mixed IO hybrid (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y for the compositions (a) y = 0.00 and (b) y = 0.25 respectively. (c) excitonic-PL spectral phase evaluation for composition y = 0.25 (same as Fig. 5(b)). Exciton (d) absorption and (e) PL peak intensities vs time plots extracted from in situ measurements monitored for y = 0.00 and y = 0.25 composition films respectively. Dotted lines in Fig. 5(d) are double exponential fits.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SEM images of patterned structures of mixed IO hybrids at y = 0.25 deposited on glass substrate. (b) and (c) shows the microscopic PL image of structures and PL line scan obtained from confocal microscope using 410 nm diode laser. (d) Shows the variation of PL peak intensity and PL peak position across the structures. (e) Representative exciton PL spectra obtained from the central portion of the structure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic photodetector configuration showing the mixed IO hybrid as active material layer. (b) ON-OFF Photocurrent response characteristics recorded for (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y at y = 0.00 and y = 0.25 under applied bias voltage of 1V and 410 nm illumination.

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