Abstract

We demonstrate the usage of a new saturable absorber material – antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) for efficient mode-locking of an Erbium-doped fiber laser. The Sb2Te3 layers were obtained by mechanical exfoliation and transferred onto the fiber connector tip. The all-fiber laser was capable of generating optical solitons with the full width at half maximum of 1.8 nm centered at 1558.6 nm, with 4.75 MHz repetition rate. The pulse energy of the generated 1.8 ps pulses was at the level of 105 pJ.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (7)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation,” Opt. Express21(4), 4665–4670 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys.111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem.20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21, 095410 (2009).

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, Y. H.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

Baek, I.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, I. H.

Balandin, A. A.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys.111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranowski, J. M.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernasconi, M.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21, 095410 (2009).

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, R.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caravatil, S.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21, 095410 (2009).

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem.20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, W.-H.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem.20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber facet with transferred Sb2Te3 layer: a) optical microscope image (inset: high purity Sb2Te3 bulk material), scanning electron microscope image

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of prepared Sb2Te3 absorber: a) AFM scan, b) EDS spectrum, c) Raman spectrum, d) linear absorption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sb2Te3 SA based mode-locked laser setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generated optical solitony centered at 1558.6 nm: a) optical spectrum with indicated 3dB bandwidth. Inset: optical spectrum recorded with 30 nm span, b) 1.8 ps pulse autocorrelation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser output measured with 4 MHz frequency span and 1 kHz RBW. Inset: spectrum in 500 MHz span, b) corresponding pulse train recorded with oscilloscope.

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