Abstract

A templating technique is proposed for improving the electro-optical properties of polymer stabilized blue phase (PSBP). After polymerizing a monomer-doped blue phase, the remaining chiral nematic liquid crystal was removed to create a porous free-standing cast that retained the 3D structure of the blue phase. The effects of the helical twisting power of the filling mesogen on the electro-optical properties of PSBP were studied. The driving voltage effectively declined as the proportion of chiral dopant in the filling material was decreased. Because of the achiral mesogen tended to be less twisted intrinsically, the elastic restoring force helped the electric field to unwind the helical structure, which was supported by the polymer anchoring force. Replacing the chiral agent with a reverse-handed chiral further reduced the driving voltage by 40% and doubled the value of the resulting figure of merit.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Yan and S.-T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-H. Lin, H.-S. Chen, T.-H. Chiang, C.-H. Wu, and H.-K. Hsu, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express19(3), 2556–2561 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Wang, C.-P. Yu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Wang, C.-H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T.-H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, C.-S. Park, K.-W. Park, S.-W. Choi, S.-W. Kang, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage,” Opt. Express19(18), 17427–17438 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, and H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

2013

G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Wang, C.-H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T.-H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Yan and S.-T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Lin, H.-S. Chen, T.-H. Chiang, C.-H. Wu, and H.-K. Hsu, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express19(3), 2556–2561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Wang, C.-P. Yu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S.-T. Hur, C.-S. Park, K.-W. Park, S.-W. Choi, S.-W. Kang, and H.-R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage,” Opt. Express19(18), 17427–17438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, and H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Cao, H.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

Chen, H.-S.

Chen, Y.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Cheng, H.-C.

H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-L.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T.-H.

Chien, L. C.

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilaya, G.

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-W.

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, F. V.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elashvili, Z.

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Fan, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. B.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hands, P. J. W.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseba, Y.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, and H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

He, W. L.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P.-J.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-K.

Hu, W.

Huang, T. H.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. D.

Huck, W. T. S.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hur, S.-T.

Ishinabe, T.

H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jákli, A.

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Japaridze, K.

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Jau, H. C.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

Jiao, M.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M. Z.

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-W.

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

T. Mizunuma, T. N. Oo, Y. Nagano, H. Ma, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, Y. Okumura, and H. Kikuchi, “Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase with different monomer combination and concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1561–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Electrooptic response of liquid crystalline blue phases with different chiral pitches,” Soft Matter7(9), 4252–4256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, Y.-H.

Ko, D. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.-C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. W.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. H.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-H.

Lin, X. W.

Lin, Y.-H.

Liu, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-H.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.-G.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.-K.

Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Luo, Z.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Mizunuma, T.

Mkhatvrishvili, M.

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagano, Y.

Nair, G. G.

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, S.-B.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nosheen, S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okumura, Y.

Oo, T. N.

Pan, G. H.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.-S.

Park, K.-W.

Piliashvili, T.

Z. Elashvili, M. Mkhatvrishvili, T. Piliashvili, G. Chilaya, and K. Japaridze, “Viscosity of nematic-chiral mixtures and their electrooptical characteristics,” Journal de Physique Colloques40, C3–22–C23–24 (1979).

Qasim, M. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. Y.

Shiu, J.-W.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

A. Jákli, G. G. Nair, C. K. Lee, R. Sun, and L. C. Chien, “Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(6), 061710 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, J.-K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

H. C. Jau, P. H. Liao, H. W. Li, H. K. Hsu, C. H. Chen, C. C. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “Improvement of electro-optical properties of PSBP LCD using a double-sided IPS electrode,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 351–353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-T.

Wang, Y.-J.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, B. Y.

Wei, J.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-H.

Wu, D.-Q.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan and S.-T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.-i.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113–011115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and X. Song, “Figure of merit of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S.-T. Wu, S.-i. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, and M. Jiao, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S.-T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-P.

Yu, F. C.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp.Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. W.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. Y.

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, E.-W.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

Zhu, J.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(7), 071104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater.22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Guo, H. Cao, J. Wei, D. W. Zhang, F. Liu, G. H. Pan, D. Y. Zhao, W. L. He, and H. Yang, “Polymer stabilized liquid crystal films reflecting both right- and left-circularly polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Templated BP fabrication procedure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The VFS setup for electro-optical measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) R-POM image of the original PSBP, (b) SEM image of the polymer template and R-POM images of the templated BP in (c) BP and (d) ISO.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The VT curves for templated BPs. Solid lines correspond to the curves with increasing voltage, and dash lines correspond to the curves with decreasing voltage. (Ch-D: chiral dopant).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Electro-optical properties of templated BPs

Equations (2)

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V on = A K A kλ ( 2π ) 2 ΔnΔε ε 0 P 2 ,
τ= γ 1 P 2 k ( 2π ) 2 ,

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