Abstract

We report on the fabrication of novel lead-germanate glasses and fibers. We have characterized these glasses in terms of their thermal properties, Raman spectra and refractive indices (both linear and nonlinear) and present them as viable alternatives to tellurite glasses for applications requiring highly nonlinear optical fibers.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
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  41. C. A.  Fenstermaker, F. L.  McCrackin, “Errors arising from surface roughness in ellipsometric measurement of the refractive index of a surface,” Surf. Sci., 85–96 (1969).
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  48. P.  Petropoulos, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V.  Finazzi, R.C.  Moore, K.  Frampton, D.J.  Richardson, T.M.  Monro, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3568–3573 (2003).
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2013 (3)

2012 (5)

2011 (5)

D.  Buccoliero, H.  Steffensen, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, O.  Bang, “Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17973–17978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.  Granzow, S. P.  Stark, M. A.  Schmidt, A. S.  Tverjanovich, L.  Wondraczek, P. S.  Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Lin, A.  Ryasnyanskiy, J.  Toulouse, “Fabrication and characterization of a water-free mid-infrared fluorotellurite glass.” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 740–742 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “The Structural Thermal, and Opt. Analyses of Multicomponent Germanium Oxide Glasses for Engineering Mid-Infrared Fiber Chemical Sensing,” J. Am. Ceram. Society 93(10), 3259–3266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V.  Dimitrov, T.  Komatsu, “An interpretation of optical properties of oxides and oxide glasses in terms of the electronic ion polarizability and average single bond strength,” J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metall 45(3), 219–250 (2010).

2009 (6)

S.  Shahi, S.  Harun, H.  Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C.  Warren-Smith, T. M.  Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R.  Oermann, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y.  Li, T.-C.  Foo, T. M.  Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: Erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, B.  Richards, A.  Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.  Liao, C.  Chaudhari, G.  Qin, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.  Johs, C. M.  Herzinger, “Quantifying the accuracy of ellipsometer systems,” physica status solidi (c) 5(5), 1031–1035 (2008).

2007 (4)

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.  Wu, Z.  Yao, J.  Zong, S.  Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. M.  Monro, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A.  Mori, Y.  Ohishi, S.  Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S.  Wang, E.  Vogel, E.  Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G.  Jellison, “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234, 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y.  Abe, D. E.  Clark, “Determination of combined water in glasses by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9(2), 244–245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S.  Friberg, P.  Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. A.  Fenstermaker, F. L.  McCrackin, “Errors arising from surface roughness in ellipsometric measurement of the refractive index of a surface,” Surf. Sci., 85–96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

Y.  Abe, D. E.  Clark, “Determination of combined water in glasses by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9(2), 244–245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Afshar, S.

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V., S.

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G.

G.  Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Google eBook) (Academic Press, 2012).

Ahmad, H.

S.  Shahi, S.  Harun, H.  Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronne, A.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bei, J.

Binks, D.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, A.

Brocklesby, W. S.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buccoliero, D.

Champagnon, B.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

Chaudhari, C.

Chernikov, S. V.

Chilyasov, A. V.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Churbanov, M. F.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Clark, D. E.

Y.  Abe, D. E.  Clark, “Determination of combined water in glasses by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9(2), 244–245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coulombier, Q.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deol, R. S.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Dimitrov, V.

V.  Dimitrov, T.  Komatsu, “An interpretation of optical properties of oxides and oxide glasses in terms of the electronic ion polarizability and average single bond strength,” J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metall 45(3), 219–250 (2010).

Domachuk, P.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorofeev, V. V.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Duan, Z.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dussauze, M.

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

J.  Bei, T. M.  Monro, A.  Hemming, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Fabrication of extruded fluoroindate optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(3), 318–328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.  Bei, T. M.  Monro, A.  Hemming, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Reduction of scattering loss in fluoroindate glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1285–1301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.  Manning, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Ternary tellurite glasses for the fabrication of nonlinear optical fibres,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 140–152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A.  Winterstein, S.  Manning, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, L.  Wondraczek, “Luminescence from bismuth-germanate glasses and its manipulation through oxidants,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1320–1328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, M. R.  Oermann, K.  Knight, T. M.  Monro, “Extruded tellurite glass and fibers with low OH content for mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 432–442 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.  Buccoliero, H.  Steffensen, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, O.  Bang, “Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17973–17978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C.  Warren-Smith, T. M.  Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R.  Oermann, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y.  Li, T.-C.  Foo, T. M.  Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: Erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M.  Monro, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P.  Petropoulos, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V.  Finazzi, R.C.  Moore, K.  Frampton, D.J.  Richardson, T.M.  Monro, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3568–3573 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Ettabib, M. A.

Feng, X.

Fenstermaker, C. A.

C. A.  Fenstermaker, F. L.  McCrackin, “Errors arising from surface roughness in ellipsometric measurement of the refractive index of a surface,” Surf. Sci., 85–96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Finazzi, V.

Foo, T.-C.

Frampton, K.

François, A.

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S.

S.  Friberg, P.  Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furniss, D.

M.D.  O’Donnell, C.A.  Miller, D.  Furniss, V.K.  Tikhomirov, A.B.  Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fusari, F.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, A. K.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannoudakos, A.

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, N.

Gregora, I.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hall, D. W.

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Harun, S.

S.  Shahi, S.  Harun, H.  Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hemming, A.

Heng, S.

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C. M.

B.  Johs, C. M.  Herzinger, “Quantifying the accuracy of ellipsometer systems,” physica status solidi (c) 5(5), 1031–1035 (2008).

Irene, E. A.

H.  Tompkins, E. A.  Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry(Google eBook)(William Andrew, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G.

G.  Jellison, “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234, 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “The Structural Thermal, and Opt. Analyses of Multicomponent Germanium Oxide Glasses for Engineering Mid-Infrared Fiber Chemical Sensing,” J. Am. Ceram. Society 93(10), 3259–3266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, B.  Richards, A.  Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

Jiang, X.

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “The Structural Thermal, and Opt. Analyses of Multicomponent Germanium Oxide Glasses for Engineering Mid-Infrared Fiber Chemical Sensing,” J. Am. Ceram. Society 93(10), 3259–3266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, B.  Richards, A.  Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

B.  Johs, C. M.  Herzinger, “Quantifying the accuracy of ellipsometer systems,” physica status solidi (c) 5(5), 1031–1035 (2008).

Jones, L.

Kakande, J.

Kamitsos, E. I.

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, K.

Komatsu, T.

V.  Dimitrov, T.  Komatsu, “An interpretation of optical properties of oxides and oxide glasses in terms of the electronic ion polarizability and average single bond strength,” J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metall 45(3), 219–250 (2010).

Kompitsas, M.

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kotereva, T. V.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Kraev, I. A.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Kryukova, E. B.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Kuan, K.

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, M. R.  Oermann, K.  Knight, T. M.  Monro, “Extruded tellurite glass and fibers with low OH content for mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 432–442 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagatsky, A.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Lee, K. F.

Levring, O. A.

Li, Y.

Liao, M.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Liao, C.  Chaudhari, G.  Qin, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

Lincoln, J. R.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lipatova, M. M.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Loh, W. H.

Lousteau, J.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “The Structural Thermal, and Opt. Analyses of Multicomponent Germanium Oxide Glasses for Engineering Mid-Infrared Fiber Chemical Sensing,” J. Am. Ceram. Society 93(10), 3259–3266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, B.  Richards, A.  Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackechnie, C. J.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manning, S.

Masuda, H.

McCrackin, F. L.

C. A.  Fenstermaker, F. L.  McCrackin, “Errors arising from surface roughness in ellipsometric measurement of the refractive index of a surface,” Surf. Sci., 85–96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.A.

M.D.  O’Donnell, C.A.  Miller, D.  Furniss, V.K.  Tikhomirov, A.B.  Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, A. N.

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Monro, T. M.

J.  Bei, T. M.  Monro, A.  Hemming, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Fabrication of extruded fluoroindate optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(3), 318–328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.  Bei, T. M.  Monro, A.  Hemming, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Reduction of scattering loss in fluoroindate glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1285–1301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.  Manning, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Ternary tellurite glasses for the fabrication of nonlinear optical fibres,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 140–152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, M. R.  Oermann, K.  Knight, T. M.  Monro, “Extruded tellurite glass and fibers with low OH content for mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 432–442 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.  Buccoliero, H.  Steffensen, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, O.  Bang, “Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17973–17978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R.  Oermann, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y.  Li, T.-C.  Foo, T. M.  Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: Erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C.  Warren-Smith, T. M.  Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M.  Monro, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Monro, T.M.

Moore, R.C.

Mori, A.

A.  Mori, H.  Masuda, K.  Shikano, M.  Shimizu, “Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber aman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1300–1306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A.  Mori, Y.  Ohishi, S.  Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, M.D.

M.D.  O’Donnell, C.A.  Miller, D.  Furniss, V.K.  Tikhomirov, A.B.  Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oermann, M. R.

Ohishi, Y.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Liao, C.  Chaudhari, G.  Qin, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Mori, Y.  Ohishi, S.  Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottaway, D. J.

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Parmigiani, F.

Payne, D. N.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
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J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
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V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
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M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

Poletti, F.

Ponzo, G. M.

Qin, G.

Richards, B.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
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X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, B.  Richards, A.  Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Richardson, D.J.

Russell, P. S.

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Sarkisov, P.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, E. P.

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schiele, C.

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Schmidt, M. A.

Seddon, A.B.

M.D.  O’Donnell, C.A.  Miller, D.  Furniss, V.K.  Tikhomirov, A.B.  Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shahi, S.

S.  Shahi, S.  Harun, H.  Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Shikano, K.

Shimizu, M.

Sibbett, W.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sigaev, V.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

Smelyanskaya, E.

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S.  Friberg, P.  Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
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J. S.  Wang, E.  Vogel, E.  Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Steffensen, H.

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A.  Mori, Y.  Ohishi, S.  Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Liao, C.  Chaudhari, G.  Qin, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. R.

Tikhomirov, V.K.

M.D.  O’Donnell, C.A.  Miller, D.  Furniss, V.K.  Tikhomirov, A.B.  Seddon, “Fluorotellurite glasses with improved mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 48–57 (2003).
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J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, Y.

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.  Richards, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, A.  Jha, “Efficient ∼2 μm Tm^3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Varsamis, C. P. E.

M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
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M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
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J. S.  Wang, E.  Vogel, E.  Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
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P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J.  Wang, J. R.  Lincoln, W. S.  Brocklesby, R. S.  Deol, C. J.  Mackechnie, A.  Pearson, A. C.  Tropper, D. C.  Hanna, D. N.  Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. App. Phys. 73(12), 8066–8075 (1993).
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J. S.  Wang, E.  Vogel, E.  Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
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Wang, L.

Warren-Smith, S.

T. M.  Monro, S.  Warren-Smith, E. P.  Schartner, A.  François, S.  Heng, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S.  Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C.  Warren-Smith, T. M.  Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidman, D. L.

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
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A.  Winterstein, S.  Manning, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, L.  Wondraczek, “Luminescence from bismuth-germanate glasses and its manipulation through oxidants,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1320–1328 (2012).
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H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C.  Schiele, A.  Winterstein, L.  Wondraczek, D. G.  Lancaster, D. J.  Ottaway, T. M.  Monro, “New germanate glasses for infrared fibre applications,” in Proceedings of the 37th Australian Conference on Opt. Fibre Technol., paper no. 518.00 (Sydney, Australia, Dec2013).

Withford, M. J.

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
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P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wu, J.

Yan, X.

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Liao, C.  Chaudhari, G.  Qin, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
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Yao, Z.

Zhang, W. Q.

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
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Zong, J.

Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. M.  Monro, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 467–495 (2006).
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App. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. W.  Hall, M. A.  Newhouse, N. F.  Borrelli, W. H.  Dumbaugh, D. L.  Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” App. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A.  Mori, Y.  Ohishi, S.  Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
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M.  Dussauze, A.  Giannoudakos, L.  Velli, C. P. E.  Varsamis, M.  Kompitsas, E. I.  Kamitsos, “Structure and optical properties of amorphous lead-germanate films developed by pulsed-laser deposition.” J. Chem. Phys. 127(3), 34704 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

V.  Sigaev, I.  Gregora, P.  Pernice, B.  Champagnon, E.  Smelyanskaya, A.  Aronne, P.  Sarkisov, “Structure of lead germanate glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 279, 136–144 (2001).
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X.  Jiang, J.  Lousteau, S.  Shen, A.  Jha, “Fluorogermanate glass with reduced content of OH-groups for infrared fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 2015–2019 (2009).
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J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

M. F.  Churbanov, A. N.  Moiseev, A. V.  Chilyasov, V. V.  Dorofeev, I. A.  Kraev, M. M.  Lipatova, T. V.  Kotereva, E. M.  Dianov, V. G.  Plotnichenko, E. B.  Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with the reduced content of OH-groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 9(10), 3229–3234 (2007).

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V.  Dimitrov, T.  Komatsu, “An interpretation of optical properties of oxides and oxide glasses in terms of the electronic ion polarizability and average single bond strength,” J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metall 45(3), 219–250 (2010).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S.  Shahi, S.  Harun, H.  Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

B.  Richards, A.  Jha, Y.  Tsang, D.  Binks, J.  Lousteau, F.  Fusari, A.  Lagatsky, C.  Brown, W.  Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

P.  Domachuk, N. A.  Wolchover, M.  Cronin-Golomb, A.  Wang, A. K.  George, C. M. B.  Cordeiro, J. C.  Knight, F. G.  Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Liao, W.  Gao, Z.  Duan, X.  Yan, T.  Suzuki, Y.  Ohishi, “Directly draw highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with diameter varying sharply in a short fiber length,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1141–1150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q.  Zhang, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, S.  Afshar V., “Fabrication and supercontinuum generation in dispersion flattened bismuth microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21135–21144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C.  Warren-Smith, T. M.  Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

D. G.  Lancaster, S.  Gross, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K.  Kuan, T. M.  Monro, M.  Ams, A.  Fuerbach, M. J.  Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm^3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

M. A.  Ettabib, L.  Jones, J.  Kakande, R.  Slavík, F.  Parmigiani, X.  Feng, F.  Poletti, G. M.  Ponzo, J.  Shi, M. N.  Petrovich, W. H.  Loh, P.  Petropoulos, D. J.  Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate fiber,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1629–1634 (2012).
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N.  Granzow, S. P.  Stark, M. A.  Schmidt, A. S.  Tverjanovich, L.  Wondraczek, P. S.  Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
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N.  Granzow, M. A.  Schmidt, W.  Chang, L.  Wang, Q.  Coulombier, J.  Troles, P.  Toupin, I.  Hartl, K. F.  Lee, M. E.  Fermann, L.  Wondraczek, P. S.  Russell, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As2S3-silica nano-spike step-index waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10969–10977 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.  Buccoliero, H.  Steffensen, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M.  Monro, O.  Bang, “Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17973–17978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R.  Oermann, H.  Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y.  Li, T.-C.  Foo, T. M.  Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: Erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of suspended core lead germanate preform, and (b) SEM image of the first lead germanate suspended core fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Glass transitin temperature (Tg) as a function of the (La,Tm)2O3 content of Na-free germanate glasses (GPL) and Na-containing germanate glasses (GPNL), and (b) Raman spectra of germanate glasses (GPL5, GPNL5) and tellurite glass (TZNL).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IR absorption spectra of bulk glass samples melted in ambient atmosphere: (a) spectra in dB/m, and (b) spectra normalized to the OH peak at ∼3 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IR absorption spectra of bulk glass samples melted in ambient and dry atmosphere: (a) spectra in dB/m, and (b) spectra normalized to the OH peak at ∼3μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Loss spectra of unstructured fibers. (b) Refractive indices of of GPL5, GPNL2 and GPNL5 germanate glasses and TZN tellurite glass. Circles are measured points; the line shows the Sellmeier fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive indices of of GPL5, GPNL2 and GPNL5 germanate glasses and TZNL tellurite glass. Circles are measured points; the line shows the Sellmeier fit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup. Light from the two lasers was coupled into a 50:50 coupler via a pair of Polarization Controllers (PCs) and then sent to an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA). The pump light was then collimated and coupled into the Fiber Under Test (FUT) through appropriate lenses. The fiber output was then finally collected into an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Four Wave Mixing (FWM) spectrum obtained at output of fiber showing pumps at 1553.50 nm and 1553.87 nm, and first order sidebands. (b) Phase shift measurement. For this fiber we measured the length to be 56.6 cm and the loss, α, to be 8.0 ± 0.8 dB/m.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nonlinear index of GPNL5 compared with other soft glasses. Solid line is Miller curve as per [3].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal glass composition (in mol%), density, glass transition temperature (Tg), onset of glass crystallization (Tx), glass stability (TxTg), linear (n0) and nonlinear (n2) indices of germanate glasses made and tellurite glass TZNL published in [27]f.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sellmeier coefficients for germanate and tellurite glasses

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ = tan ( Ψ ) e i Δ = R ˜ s R ˜ p
n 2 ( λ ) = 1 + i = 1 3 B i λ 2 λ 2 C i
ϕ = 2 γ L eff P ¯
γ = 2 π λ n 2 A eff
L eff = ( 1 e α L )
n 2 [ m 2 / W ] = K 160 π c n 0 2 χ ( 3 ) [ esu ]

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