Abstract

We report the nanostructure study results, mainly based on plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the coalescence process during the overgrowth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In cross-section scanning electron microscopy images, one can observe a two-stage coalescence overgrowth process. First, a group of nearby nanocolumns is merged into a thicker column. One of the possible merging processes is the growth of a bridging domain between two columns for their connection. The thicker columns are then developed into horn-shaped structures for the second-stage coalescence. Because different columns may have different crystal orientations, stacking faults can be formed for implementing the coalescence between two domains. Such stacking faults around the boundaries of merged domains represent one of the major kinds of defect after the threading dislocation density is reduced based on the nanocolumn growth technique.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Khoury, A. Courville, B. Poulet, M. Teisseire, E. Beraudo, M. J. Rashid, E. Frayssinet, B. Damilano, F. Semond, O. Tottereau and P. Vennegu’es,“ Imaging and counting threading dislocations in c-oriented epitaxial GaN layers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 035006 (8pp) (2013).
  4. R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).
  6. H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).
  15. X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).
  17. Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).
  25. J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
  33. G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. E.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boucherit, M.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, E.

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, J. M.

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, E. Y.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Chang, J. R.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Chao, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Chen, X. J.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Chi, G. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, T. W.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Cho, Y.-H.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Chou, C.-P.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W. C.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Chow, S. Y.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
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T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Chung, R. B.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, C. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clos, R.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
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R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
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R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Durand, C.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eymery, J.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. M.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X. L.

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faralli, N.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
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Ferry, D. K.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Francesco Pecora, E.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Fujiyasu, H.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gang, X. Z.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghedia, C. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goodnick, S. M.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guang, M. Z.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. W.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haboeck, U.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, T.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S. D.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, A.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Hong, S.-H.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X. S.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, T.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. L.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Y.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hudait, M. K.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, A.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, K.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, U.

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jarasiunas, K.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, Y.-R.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H. Q.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jian, D. G.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. A.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamaladasa, R. J.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kishino, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein-Wiele, J.-H.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kominami, H.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krost, A.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ku, J. T.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Kusakabe, K.

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. P.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).

Lee, S.-J.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leem, S. J.

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Lethy, K. J.

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. Q.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. L.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Lin, M.-H.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. T.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, F. Y.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, A.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lv, L.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S.

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, T.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malindretos, J.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marino, F. A.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meidia, H.

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Membe, S.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miao, G.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ming, D. C.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Motooka, T.

T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Mulholland, G.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, Y.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Navamathavan, R.

J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).

Negro, L. D.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Nguyen, L.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, A. Y.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Niu, M.-T.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Palacios, T.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. M.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. S.

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).

Park, S.-C.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-E.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perillat-Merceroz, G.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Picard, Y. N.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, L. M.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiang, X. P.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramdani, M.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, T.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rizzi, A.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, S.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
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F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
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H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, R.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Soltani, A.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
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A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
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Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T.-Y.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
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G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tottereau, O.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Troadec, D.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Urban, A.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Veit, P.

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-C.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. S.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. N.

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. D.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.-C.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Wu, F.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.-F.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Z. G.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.-R.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.-S.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, S.

T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.-A.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. H.

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

Yao, C.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yau, W.-H.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Yin, J.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yun, L. X.

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zang, K. Y.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-C.

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Zhang, Y.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. M.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Zhou, S. H.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

C.-Y. Cho, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hong, S.-C. Park, S.-E. Park, Y. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Growth and Separation of High Quality GaN Epilayer from Sapphire Substrate by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth and Wet Chemical Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express4(1), 012104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Fang, Y. Q. Wang, H. Meidia, and S. Mahajan, “Reduction of threading dislocations in GaN layers using in situ deposited silicon nitride masks on AlN and GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, L.-A. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Xue, S.-R. Xu, L. Lv, Y. Hao, and M.-T. Niu, “Threading dislocation reduction in transit region of GaN terahertz Gunn diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

M.-H. Lin, H.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-R. Jeng, W.-H. Yau, W.-F. Wu, and C.-P. Chou, “Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(11), 3464–3467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des.

Z. T. Lin, H. Yang, S. H. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Pattern Design of and Epitaxial Growth on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Highly Efficient GaN-Based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm

H. Zhang, Y. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Hao, Y. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Dai, and Y. Tian, “Growth of high quality GaN on a novel designed bonding-thinned template by HVPE,” CrystEngComm14(14), 4777–4780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned agog sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Electron Dev.

F. A. Marino, S. Membe, N. Faralli, T. Palacios, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and M. Saraniti, “Effects of threading dislocations on AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors,” IEEE T. Electron Dev.57(1), 353–360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Riemann, T. Hempel, J. Christen, P. Veit, R. Clos, A. Dadgar, A. Krost, U. Haboeck, and A. Hoffmann, “Optical and structural microanalysis of GaN grown on SiN submonolayers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, L. S. Wang, S. Y. Chow, and S. J. Chua, “Defect reduction by periodic SiNx interlayers in gallium nitride grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, W. N. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, J. R. Chang, J. T. Ku, M. K. Hudait, W. C. Chou, M. Chen, and K. L. Lin, “The roles of threading dislocations on electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MBE,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(7), H746–H749 (2010).

J. Microsc.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling,” J. Microsc.244(3), 311–319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

J.-H. Park, R. Navamathavan, and C.-R. Lee, “Size effects of nano-pattern in Si(1 1 1) substrate on the selective growth behavior of GaN nanowires by MOCVD,” Mater. Res. Bull.47, 836–842 (2012).

Nano Lett.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

A. Urban, J. Malindretos, J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and A. Rizzi, “Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips,” New J. Phys.15(5), 053045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

H. S. Cheong, C. S. Park, C. H. Hong, J. H. Yi, S. J. Leem, and H. K. Cho, “Structural and optical properties of lateral overgrown GaN grown by double pendeo-epitaxy technique,” Phys. Status Solidi0(c), 550–553 (2002).

Phys. Status Solidi C

Y. Cordier, O. Tottereau, L. Nguyen, M. Ramdani, A. Soltani, M. Boucherit, D. Troadec, F. Y. Lo, Y. Y. Hu, A. Ludwig, and A. D. Wieck, “Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(5), 1516–1519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Physica E

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy

Z. Y. Chao, X. Z. Gang, M. Z. Guang, C. Yao, D. G. Jian, X. P. Qiang, D. C. Ming, C. Hong, and L. X. Yun, “Threading dislocation density comparison between GaN grown on the patterned and conventional sapphire substrate by high resolution X-ray diffraction,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy53(3), 465–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Khoury, A. Courville, B. Poulet, M. Teisseire, E. Beraudo, M. J. Rashid, E. Frayssinet, B. Damilano, F. Semond, O. Tottereau and P. Vennegu’es,“ Imaging and counting threading dislocations in c-oriented epitaxial GaN layers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 035006 (8pp) (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plan-view (a) and cross-section (b) SEM images of sample I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A plan-view TEM image showing the coalesced connection between two hexagon domains of sample I; (b) A magnified TEM image showing the essentially continuous crystalline orientation across the coalescence boundary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a): A plane-view TEM image of sample II showing the coalescence boundary of two domains; (b) and (c): Magnified TEM images showing the stacking fault structures for implementing the coalescence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A plan-view TEM image showing the connection between two large hexagon domains and a small bridging domain of sample I. The areas within the circle and square are to be further analyzed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A magnified TEM image showing the area of the circle in Fig. 4. Three circled areas, labeled as A, B, and C, are used for diffraction pattern analysis to give the results at the lower portion of this figure for demonstrating the same crystalline orientation in the two coalesced domains and the boundary

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A magnified TEM image showing the region of the square in Fig. 4. Two square regions, labeled as D and E, are used for diffraction pattern analysis to give the results at the lower portion of the figure for demonstrating the different crystalline orientations in the two domains.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A plan-view TEM image of sample I showing two domains in proximity of different crystalline orientations, as indicated by the diffraction patterns of regions F and G at the bottom of the figure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A plan-view SEM image of a nanocolumn sample showing the grouped distribution of nanocolumns.

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