Abstract

We investigate the structural properties of molecular-beam-epitaxy coalescence overgrowth of GaN columns at the nanoscale with transmission electron microscopy and other characterization techniques. Two samples grown over nanocolumns of different widths and spatial densities (columns/area) are compared. It is found that columns with a larger cross section (~500 nm) and correspondingly lower spatial density normally lead to un-coalesced overgrown domains ranging 5-8 μm in size. On the other hand, the overgrowth on the columns of a smaller cross section (~100 nm) and correspondingly higher density results in coalesced domains ranging from 1 to 5 μm in size. It is believed that among the smaller, more closely spaced columns the strain distribution resulting from overgrowth is more effective in leading to the uniformity of crystalline orientation, and hence successful coalescence. The optical characterization leads to the conclusion that the defect density in the sample grown on smaller columns is lower when compared with that grown on larger columns.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

2012 (6)

I.-W. Feng, J. Li, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Effects of growth pressure on erbium doped GaN infrared emitters synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1095–1100 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hite, M. Twigg, M. Mastro, J. Freitas, J. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, S. O’Connor, N. Condon, F. Kub, S. Bowman, and C. Eddy, “Development of periodically oriented gallium nitride for non-linear optics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1203–1208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Oikawa, C. Feldmeier, U. T. Schwarz, Y. Kawakami, and R. Micheletto, “Real-time near-field evidence of optical blinking in the photoluminescence of InGaN by scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 158–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE6129, 612905, 612905-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Iwanaga, T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Matsumoto and M. Aoki, “Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence from GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.13(11), 1804–1807 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, J. D.

K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, M.

T. Matsumoto and M. Aoki, “Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence from GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.13(11), 1804–1807 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Averett, K. L.

K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, P. G.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bardoux, R.

Beresfordx, R.

F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. E.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boeckl, J.

J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S.

Calle, F.

E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, E.

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, J. M.

J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calley, F.

F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
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Chen, Y. H.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
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Chen, Y. S.

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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
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Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
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H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

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R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
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B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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DenBaars, S. P.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Ding, Y. J.

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
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Eddy, C.

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elsass, C.

B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
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Feldmeier, C.

Feng, I.-W.

Fini, P.

B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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Fischer, S.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
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R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
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Freitas, J.

Fujiyasu, H.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
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Funato, M.

Gerthsen, D.

R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
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C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
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Han, H. V.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heying, B.

B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J.

Hoshino, T.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. L.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D. Z.

R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
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Jiang, H.

Kaneta, A.

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
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Kawai, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Ke, C. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Complex strain distribution in individual facetted InGaN/GaN nano-columnar heterostructures,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 47–53 (2013).
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A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE6129, 612905, 612905-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).

Kishino, K.

R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Complex strain distribution in individual facetted InGaN/GaN nano-columnar heterostructures,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 47–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE6129, 612905, 612905-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kominami, H.

Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kub, F.

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kusakabe, K.

K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, X. H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

Lin, P. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, D.

R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Y.

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, T.

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B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
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E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

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Oikawa, K.

Paiella, R.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

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G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
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E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
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B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
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E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000).
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J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
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R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
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R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
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Shivaraman, R.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Smorchkova, I.

B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
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R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
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B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
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T. Iwanaga, T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
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Van Nostrand, J. E.

K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006).
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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

Walther, R.

R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-C.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, S.

T. Iwanaga, T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavada, J.

Zhang, J.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Zhao, H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. P.

G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).

Zhu, M.

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012).
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K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001).
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Nanotechnology (1)

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

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[CrossRef]

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J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE6129, 612905, 612905-8 (2006).
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F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997).
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Thin Solid Films (1)

H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010).
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Other (2)

C. C. Lin, C. H. Chiu, H. W. Huang, S. P. Chang, and H. C. Kuo, “Highly efficient InGaN-based light emitting devices grown on nanoscale patterned substrates by MOCVD,” Proc. SPIE, Display, Solid-State Lighting, Photovoltaics, and Optoelectronics in Energy III, 83120C (2011).

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, G. Bruederl, J. Wagner, M. Strassburg, E. Baur, H. Braun, U. T. Schwarz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, R. Oberschmid, and B. Hahn, “Measurement of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN quantum wells,” SPIE Vol. 6486 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Plan-view and (b) cross-section SEM images of sample A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TEM image of an overgrown column in sample A and (b) a high-resolution TEM image of the junction between the column and its overgrown bell-shaped structure, as circled in part (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Plan-view and (b) cross-section SEM images of sample B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TEM image of several overgrown bell-shaped structures in sample B with two of them being coalesced; (b) Magnified TEM image of the circled portion in part (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRD rocking curves in the (0002) and (10-12) planes of the two samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized PL spectra of the two samples at 10 K (a) and 300 K (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature-dependent integrated PL intensities of the two samples.

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