Abstract

3 μm Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers passively Q-switched by a Fe2+:ZnSe crystal and graphene saturable absorbers were investigated, respectively. 800 ns pulses at 2.93 µm with an energy of 460 nJ and repetition rate of 105 KHz were obtained when a Fe2+:ZnSe crystal was inserted into a free space collimating and focusing setup. A more compact and reliable Q-switched fiber laser was achieved when a graphene coated fiber mirror was butt-coupled to the angle-cleaved end of the gain fiber. 1.2 μs pulses with an energy of 1 μJ and repetition rate of 100 KHz were achieved. More than 100 mW average output power was obtained at the maximum available pump power. Our experiments demonstrate that both Fe2+:ZnSe crystal and graphene are promising saturable absorbers for pulse generation in the 3 µm wavelength region.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-microm band,” Opt. Express18(3), 1946–1951 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron.2010, 501956 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhu and R. Jain, “10-W-level diode-pumped compact 2.78 microm ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 26–28 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Liquid-cooled 24 W mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3062–3064 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2812–2814 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1104–1106 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Jackson, “Single-transverse-mode 2.5-W holmium-doped fluoride fiber laser operating at 2.86 microm,” Opt. Lett.29(4), 334–336 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho(3+)Pr(3+)-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 microm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express14(2), 678–685 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Fortin, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, J. Carrier, and R. Vallée, “3.7 W fluoride glass Raman fiber laser operating at 2231 nm,” Opt. Express20(17), 19412–19419 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(17), 2770–2775 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic application of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 427–447 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (8)

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic application of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho(3+)Pr(3+)-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Fortin, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, J. Carrier, and R. Vallée, “3.7 W fluoride glass Raman fiber laser operating at 2231 nm,” Opt. Express20(17), 19412–19419 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(17), 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1104–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2812–2814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-microm band,” Opt. Express18(3), 1946–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron.2010, 501956 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Liquid-cooled 24 W mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3062–3064 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and R. Jain, “10-W-level diode-pumped compact 2.78 microm ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 26–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 microm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express14(2), 678–685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Akimov, V. A.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andriasyan, M.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Badikov, V.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, M.

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blighe, F. M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutoussov, D.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bragagna, T.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmeyer, E.

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, N.

Caron, N.

Carrier, J.

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. N.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeShazer, L. G.

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Digiovanni, D. J.

Draheim, R.

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duesberg, G.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Taher, A. E.

Faucher, D.

Fedorov, V.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortin, V.

Frerichs, C.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, M. P.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galecki, L.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallian, A.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, P.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, R.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grodecki, K.

Gross, S.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gun’Ko, Y. K.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, J. A.

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Hashida, M.

Heinrich, A.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, Y.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, B.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, T.

Hudson, D. D.

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho(3+)Pr(3+)-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchison, J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, S. D.

Jain, R.

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jankiewicz, Z.

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, J.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

King, T. A.

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korostelin, Y. V.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovskii, V. I.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, V. I.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landman, A. I.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laustsen, B. T.

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Librantz, A. F.

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, J.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lotya, M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maciejewska, M.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marine, P.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGovern, I. T.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messaddeq, Y.

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirova, S.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nampoothiri, A. V. V.

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nicolosi, V.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niraj, P.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norwood, R. A.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyga, P.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paletko, P.

Pasternak, I.

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron.2010, 501956 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pichola, W.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podmar'kov, Y. P.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polushkin, V. G.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

Prasad, N.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ratanavis, A.

Ren, Z.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J.

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

Sakabe, S.

Scardaci, V.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skorczakowski, M.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G.

Sotor, J.

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strait, J.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strupinski, W.

Sun, Z.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swiderski, J.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tauermann, T.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokita, S.

Torrisi, F.

Tsang, Y. H.

Unrau, U. B.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Veksler, D.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, A. A.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, P.

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wu, S.

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

Yan, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zajac, A.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

Zhu, X.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron.2010, 501956 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and R. Jain, “10-W-level diode-pumped compact 2.78 microm ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 26–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. S.

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zong, J.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron.2010, 501956 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, R. Draheim, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Cascaded silicon Raman lasers as mid-infrared sources,” Electron. Lett.42(21), 1224–1226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-Switched 2.8-μm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. F. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 498–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, H. Ma, Z. Ren, X. Chen, J. Long, M. Qi, D. Shen, Y. Wang, and J. Bai, “A graphene Q-switched nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng.37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Mode-locked and Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE8192, 819244, 819244-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirova, V. Badikov, D. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive Q-switching of 2.8-μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser Cavity,” Proc. SPIE6451, 64510L, 64510L-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Zhu, J. A. Harrington, B. T. Laustsen, and L. G. DeShazer, “Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy,” Proc. SPIE7894, 789415, 789415-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Zong, R. A. Norwood, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and N. Prasad, “Holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2 µm,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823727, 823727-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and A. A. Voronov, “2.94 μm Er:YAG q-switched laser with FE2+:ZnSe passive shutter,” Proc. SPIE6610, 661008, 661008-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-μm lasers,” Quantum Electron.36(1), 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, ““Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources,” Top. Appl. Phys.89, 458–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of Ho3+-doped ZBLAN and transitions related to the laser emission at 2.9 µm. ESA1 and ESA2 represent exited state absorptions and ETU1 and ETU2 represent energy transfer upconversions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The absorption and (b) fluorescence of 3 mol% Ho3+-doped ZBLAN. Inset of (a) shows the absorption of Ho3+-doped ZBLAN in the 1.1-1.24 µm range; inset of (b) shows the fluorescence of Ho3+-doped ZBLAN in the 3 µm region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption of the Fe2+:ZnSe crystal used in our experiment. Inset shows the Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of experiment setup for Fe2+:ZnSe Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Pulse train and (b) pulse envelop of Fe2+:ZnSe Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at launched pump power of 1.8 W.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The average output power (red squares) and the pulse energy (blue dots), (b) the repetition rate (red squares) and the pulse duration (blue dots) of the Fe2+:ZnSe Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser as a function of the launched pump power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of the passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at a launched pump power of 1 W.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

RF spectrum of the Fe2+:ZnSe Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser measured at a launched pump power of 1.8 W

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The transmission of a 5-layer graphene thin film deposited on a silicon substrate. Inset: Raman spectrum of the 5-layer graphene.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The fiber mirror end before (a) and after (b) graphene was deposited.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of experimental setup for graphene Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Pulse train and (b) pulse envelop of graphene Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at launched pump power of 1.5 W.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) The average output power (red squares) and the pulse energy (blue dots), (b) the repetition rate (red squares) and the pulse duration (blue dots) of graphene Q-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser as a function of the launched pump power.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

RF spectrum of the graphene Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser measured at a launched pump power of 1.5 W

Metrics