Abstract

While the vast majority of integrated photonic devices are traditionally fabricated on rigid substrates, photonic integration of both passive and active photonic devices on flexible polymer substrates has been demonstrated in recent years, and its applications in imaging, sensing and optical interconnects are being actively pursued. This paper presents an overview of the emerging field of mechanically flexible photonics, where we examine material processing and mechanical design rationales dictated by application-specific optical functionalities. The examples include semiconductor nanomembranes which serve as the key enabling material for hybrid inorganic-organic flexible active photonics, and monolithically integrated passive photonic structures fabricated from semiconductors, polymers, or amorphous materials. Technical challenges and further research opportunities related to materials engineering and device integration on flexible substrates are also discussed.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (8)

B. Swatowski, C. Amb, S. Breed, D. Deshazer, W. Ken Weidner, R. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE8622, 8622–8624 (2013).
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C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.13(1), 248–252 (2013).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, O. Ogbuu, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass planar photonics: from mid-IR sensing to 3-D flexible substrate integration,” Proc. SPIE8600, 8600–8620 (2013).
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H. Zhou, J.-H. Seo, D. M. Paskiewicz, Y. Zhu, G. K. Celler, P. M. Voyles, W. Zhou, M. G. Lagally, and Z. Ma, “Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes,” Sci Rep3, 1291 (2013).
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Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. Cantrell, and C. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids369, 11–16 (2013).
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Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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T. I. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R. H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I. S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronics with applications for wireless optogenetics,” Science340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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B. Rangarajan, A. Y. Kovalgin, K. Wörhoff, and J. Schmitz, “Low-temperature deposition of high-quality silicon oxynitride films for CMOS-integrated optics,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 941–943 (2013).
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2012 (15)

J. T. Choy, J. D. Bradley, P. B. Deotare, I. B. Burgess, C. C. Evans, E. Mazur, and M. Lončar, “Integrated TiO2 resonators for visible photonics,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 539–541 (2012).
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X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, C. Y. Lin, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Stamp printing of silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic devices onto flexible substrates with a suspended configuration,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1020–1022 (2012).
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L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
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Y. Zou, H. Lin, O. Ogbuu, L. Li, S. Danto, S. Novak, J. Novak, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Effect of annealing conditions on the physio-chemical properties of spin-coated As2Se3 chalcogenide glass films,” Opt. Mater. Express2(12), 1723–1732 (2012).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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T. Kim, R. H. Kim, and J. A. Rogers, “Microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes on flexible and stretchable substrates,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 607–612 (2012).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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R. H. Kim, H. Tao, T. I. Kim, Y. Zhang, S. Kim, B. Panilaitis, M. Yang, D. H. Kim, Y. H. Jung, B. H. Kim, Y. Li, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials and designs for wirelessly powered implantable light-emitting systems,” Small8(18), 2812–2818 (2012).
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K. Zhang, J. Seo, W. Zhou, and Z. Ma, “Fast flexible electronics using transferrable silicon nanomembranes (Topical Review),” J. Phys. D.45(14), 143001 (2012).
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W. Zhou, M. Zhenqiang, C. Santhad, Y. Shuai, J. Seo, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and W. Yang, “Semiconductor nanomembranes for integrated silicon photonics and flexible photonics,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(12-13), 605–611 (2012).
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2011 (11)

Z. Yu, X. Niu, Z. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Intrinsically stretchable polymer light-emitting devices using carbon nanotube-polymer composite electrodes,” Adv. Mater.23(34), 3989–3994 (2011).
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J. Yoon, L. Li, A. V. Semichaevsky, J. H. Ryu, H. T. Johnson, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides,” Nat Commun2, 343 (2011).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ghaffari, Y. S. Kim, S. P. Lee, L. Xu, J. Wu, R. H. Kim, J. Song, Z. Liu, J. Viventi, B. de Graff, B. Elolampi, M. Mansour, M. J. Slepian, S. Hwang, J. D. Moss, S. M. Won, Y. Huang, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy,” Nat. Mater.10(4), 316–323 (2011).
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J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible Plasmonics on Unconventional and Nonplanar Substrates,” Adv. Mater.23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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P. Horak, W. Stewart, and W. H. Loh, “Continuously tunable optical buffer with a dual silicon waveguide design,” Opt. Express19(13), 12456–12461 (2011).
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2010 (8)

L. Sun, G. Qin, G. K. Celler, W. Zhou, and Z. Ma, “12-GHz thin-film transistors with transferrable silicon nanomembranes for high-performance massive flexible electronics,” Small6, 2553–2557 (2010).
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J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
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A. Ghaffari, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Transfer of micro and nano-photonic silicon nanomembrane waveguide devices on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express18(19), 20086–20095 (2010).
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N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: Leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
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W. Yang, H. Yang, G. Qin, Z. Ma, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, R. Soref, and W. Zhou, “Large-area InP-based crystalline nanomembrane flexible photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121107 (2010).
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2009 (3)

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K. J. Kim, J. K. Seo, and M. C. Oh, “Strain induced tunable wavelength filters based on flexible polymer waveguide Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express16(3), 1423–1430 (2008).
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Agarwal, A.

Ahn, B. Y.

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B. Swatowski, C. Amb, S. Breed, D. Deshazer, W. Ken Weidner, R. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE8622, 8622–8624 (2013).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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Amundson, K.

J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
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Arnold, C.

Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. Cantrell, and C. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids369, 11–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible Plasmonics on Unconventional and Nonplanar Substrates,” Adv. Mater.23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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Atalar, A.

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
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Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
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Aydinli, A.

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater.7(11), 907–915 (2008).
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S. Mack, M. A. Meitl, A. J. Baca, Z. T. Zhu, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanically flexible thin-film transistors that use ultrathin ribbons of silicon derived from bulk wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213101 (2006).
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Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, “A thin foil optical strain gage based on silicon-oninsulator microresonators,” Proc. SPIE6619, 661914, 661914-4 (2007).
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L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
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D. Hines, V. Ballarotto, E. Williams, Y. Shao, and S. Solin, “Transfer printing methods for the fabrication of flexible organic electronics,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 024503 (2007).
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Bao, Z.

J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
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Berggren, J.

W. Yang, H. Yang, G. Qin, Z. Ma, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, R. Soref, and W. Zhou, “Large-area InP-based crystalline nanomembrane flexible photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121107 (2010).
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Bernabeu, E.

Bhola, B.

B. Bhola, H. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. Steier, “Polymer microresonator strain sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 867–869 (2005).
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D. P. Birnie, “Rational solvent selection strategies to combat striation formation during spin coating of thin films,” J. Mater. Res.16(04), 1145–1154 (2001).
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D. Guidotti, Y. Jianjun, M. Blaser, V. Grundlehner, and G. Chang, “Edge viewing photodetectors for strictly in-plane lightwave circuit integration and flexible optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of 56th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 782–788.
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Bogart, G. R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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Bosman, E.

E. Bosman, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, J. Missinne, J. Vanfleteren, and P. Van Daele, “Highly Reliable Flexible Active Optical Links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 287–289 (2010).
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Bossuyt, F.

R. Verplancke, F. Bossuyt, D. Cuypers, and J. Vanfleteren, “Thin-film stretchable electronics technology based on meandering interconnections: fabrication and mechanical performance,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(1), 015002 (2012).
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Bour, D.

L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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Bowers, J.

Bowers, J. E.

J. E. Bowers, H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, “Design and fabrication of optically pumped hybrid silicon-AlGaInAs evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1657–1663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D.

Braun, P.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breed, S.

B. Swatowski, C. Amb, S. Breed, D. Deshazer, W. Ken Weidner, R. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE8622, 8622–8624 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brenckle, M. A.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. I. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R. H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I. S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronics with applications for wireless optogenetics,” Science340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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Budd, R.

L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, I. B.

Cain, T.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canabal, H.

Canciamilla, A.

Cantrell, S.

Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. Cantrell, and C. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids369, 11–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Carlson, A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celler, G. K.

H. Zhou, J.-H. Seo, D. M. Paskiewicz, Y. Zhu, G. K. Celler, P. M. Voyles, W. Zhou, M. G. Lagally, and Z. Ma, “Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes,” Sci Rep3, 1291 (2013).
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L. Sun, G. Qin, G. K. Celler, W. Zhou, and Z. Ma, “12-GHz thin-film transistors with transferrable silicon nanomembranes for high-performance massive flexible electronics,” Small6, 2553–2557 (2010).
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H. C. Yuan, G. K. Celler, and Z. Ma, “7.8-GHz flexible thin-film transistors on a low-temperature plastic substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(3), 034501 (2007).
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Chanda, D.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

D. Guidotti, Y. Jianjun, M. Blaser, V. Grundlehner, and G. Chang, “Edge viewing photodetectors for strictly in-plane lightwave circuit integration and flexible optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of 56th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 782–788.
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

W. Zhou, Z. Ma, H. Yang, Z. Qiang, G. Qin, H. Pang, L. Chen, W. Yang, S. Chuwongin, and D. Zhao, “Flexible photonic-crystal Fano filters based on transferred semiconductor nanomembranes,” J. Phys. D42(23), 234007 (2009).
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L. Chen, Z. Qiang, H. Yang, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. D. Zhou, “Polarization and angular dependent transmissions on transferred nanomembrane Fano filters,” Opt. Express17(10), 8396–8406 (2009).
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Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061106 (2008).
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Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci Rep2, 622 (2012).
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Cheng, H.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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Cherenack, K.

K. Cherenack, K. V. Os, and L. V. Pieterson, “Smart photonic textiles begin to weave their magic,” Laser Focus World48, 63–66 (2012).

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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Chiu, L.

T. Lu, L. Chiu, P. Lin, and P. Lee, “One-dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam lasers on a flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(7), 071101 (2011).
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Choi, C.

Choi, J.

Choi, K. J.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W. M.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, R.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, J. T.

Chung, H. J.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuwongin, S.

W. Zhou, Z. Ma, H. Yang, Z. Qiang, G. Qin, H. Pang, L. Chen, W. Yang, S. Chuwongin, and D. Zhao, “Flexible photonic-crystal Fano filters based on transferred semiconductor nanomembranes,” J. Phys. D42(23), 234007 (2009).
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Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
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Cohen, O.

J. E. Bowers, H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, “Design and fabrication of optically pumped hybrid silicon-AlGaInAs evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1657–1663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, T.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crone, B.

J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuypers, D.

R. Verplancke, F. Bossuyt, D. Cuypers, and J. Vanfleteren, “Thin-film stretchable electronics technology based on meandering interconnections: fabrication and mechanical performance,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(1), 015002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Y. Huang, G. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, and L. Dalton, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(25), 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
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Dangel, R.

B. Swatowski, C. Amb, S. Breed, D. Deshazer, W. Ken Weidner, R. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE8622, 8622–8624 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, O. Ogbuu, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass planar photonics: from mid-IR sensing to 3-D flexible substrate integration,” Proc. SPIE8600, 8600–8620 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Lin, O. Ogbuu, L. Li, S. Danto, S. Novak, J. Novak, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Effect of annealing conditions on the physio-chemical properties of spin-coated As2Se3 chalcogenide glass films,” Opt. Mater. Express2(12), 1723–1732 (2012).
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de Graff, B.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ghaffari, Y. S. Kim, S. P. Lee, L. Xu, J. Wu, R. H. Kim, J. Song, Z. Liu, J. Viventi, B. de Graff, B. Elolampi, M. Mansour, M. J. Slepian, S. Hwang, J. D. Moss, S. M. Won, Y. Huang, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy,” Nat. Mater.10(4), 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Leon, N.

C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.13(1), 248–252 (2013).
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Deotare, P. B.

Deshazer, D.

B. Swatowski, C. Amb, S. Breed, D. Deshazer, W. Ken Weidner, R. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE8622, 8622–8624 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F.

L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dokmeci, M. R.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible Plasmonics on Unconventional and Nonplanar Substrates,” Adv. Mater.23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ghaffari, Y. S. Kim, S. P. Lee, L. Xu, J. Wu, R. H. Kim, J. Song, Z. Liu, J. Viventi, B. de Graff, B. Elolampi, M. Mansour, M. J. Slepian, S. Hwang, J. D. Moss, S. M. Won, Y. Huang, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy,” Nat. Mater.10(4), 316–323 (2011).
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J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater.7(11), 907–915 (2008).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater.7(11), 907–915 (2008).
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T. I. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R. H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I. S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronics with applications for wireless optogenetics,” Science340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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T. Kim, R. H. Kim, and J. A. Rogers, “Microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes on flexible and stretchable substrates,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 607–612 (2012).
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R. H. Kim, H. Tao, T. I. Kim, Y. Zhang, S. Kim, B. Panilaitis, M. Yang, D. H. Kim, Y. H. Jung, B. H. Kim, Y. Li, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials and designs for wirelessly powered implantable light-emitting systems,” Small8(18), 2812–2818 (2012).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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J. Yoon, L. Li, A. V. Semichaevsky, J. H. Ryu, H. T. Johnson, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides,” Nat Commun2, 343 (2011).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ghaffari, Y. S. Kim, S. P. Lee, L. Xu, J. Wu, R. H. Kim, J. Song, Z. Liu, J. Viventi, B. de Graff, B. Elolampi, M. Mansour, M. J. Slepian, S. Hwang, J. D. Moss, S. M. Won, Y. Huang, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy,” Nat. Mater.10(4), 316–323 (2011).
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J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
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H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
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D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
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D. Kim and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable electronics: Materials strategies and devices,” Adv. Mater.20(24), 4887–4892 (2008).
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J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater.7(11), 907–915 (2008).
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M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater.5(1), 33–38 (2006).
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S. Mack, M. A. Meitl, A. J. Baca, Z. T. Zhu, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanically flexible thin-film transistors that use ultrathin ribbons of silicon derived from bulk wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213101 (2006).
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J. A. Rogers, Z. Bao, K. Baldwin, A. Dodabalapur, B. Crone, V. R. Raju, V. Kuck, H. Katz, K. Amundson, J. Ewing, and P. Drzaic, “Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(9), 4835–4840 (2001).
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L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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J. Yoon, L. Li, A. V. Semichaevsky, J. H. Ryu, H. T. Johnson, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides,” Nat Commun2, 343 (2011).
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S. Furumi, H. Fudouzi, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Sakka, “Flexible polymer colloidal -crystal lasers with a light-emitting planar defect,” Adv. Mater.19(16), 2067–2072 (2007).
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H. C. Yuan, Z. Ma, M. M. Roberts, D. E. Savage, and M. G. Lagally, “High-speed strained-single-crystal-silicon thin-film transistors on flexible polymers,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013708 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Schuster, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, R. John, L. Shan, Y. Kwark, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. Tsang, C. Patel, J. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. Tan, and D. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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Adv. Mater. (6)

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Nat Commun (1)

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Opt. Express (10)

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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, O. Ogbuu, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass planar photonics: from mid-IR sensing to 3-D flexible substrate integration,” Proc. SPIE8600, 8600–8620 (2013).
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Science (5)

D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
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D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
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Z. Ma, “Materials science:An electronic second skin,” Science333(6044), 830–831 (2011).
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T. I. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R. H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I. S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronics with applications for wireless optogenetics,” Science340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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Small (3)

L. Sun, G. Qin, G. K. Celler, W. Zhou, and Z. Ma, “12-GHz thin-film transistors with transferrable silicon nanomembranes for high-performance massive flexible electronics,” Small6, 2553–2557 (2010).
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R. H. Kim, H. Tao, T. I. Kim, Y. Zhang, S. Kim, B. Panilaitis, M. Yang, D. H. Kim, Y. H. Jung, B. H. Kim, Y. Li, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials and designs for wirelessly powered implantable light-emitting systems,” Small8(18), 2812–2818 (2012).
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Other (12)

R. Bockstaele, M. De Wilde, W. Meeus, H. Sergeant, O. Rits, J. Van Campenhout, J. De Baets, P. Van Daele, F. Dorgeuille, S. Eitel, M. Klemenc, R. Annen, J. Van Koetsem, J. Goudeau, B. Bareel, R. Fries, P. Straub, F. Marion, J. Routin, and R. Baets, “Chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects over optical backpanels based on arrays of multimode waveguides,” Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS 61–64 (2004).

D. Butler, M. Li, S. Li, K. Matthews, V. Nazarov, A. Koklyushkin, R. McCollum, Y. Geng, and J. Luther, “Multicore optical fiber and connectors for high bandwidth density, short reach optical links,” presented at the IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference, 5–8 May 2013.
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Y. Zou, H. Lin, and J. Hu, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, and X. Sun, N. Feng, S. Danto, K. Richardson, T. Gu, and M. Haney are preparing a manuscript to be called “A fully-integrated flexible photonic platform for chip-to-chip optical interconnects.”

J. Sandland, “Sputtered silicon oxynitride for microphotonics: a materials study,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2005).

Y. Zou, D. Zhang, H. Lin, L. Li, L. Moreel, J. Zhou, Q. Du, O. Ogbuu, K. Dobson, R. Birkmire, and J. Hu, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, and S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Nonplanar Substrates.”

W. Yang, S. Chuwongin, D. Zhao, H. Yang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Flexible solar cells based on stacked semiconductor nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” in CLEO San Jose, CA, 2010.

S. Chuwongin, W. Yang, H. Yang, W. D. Zhou, and Z. Ma, “Flexible Crystalline InP Nanomembrane LED Arrays,” in IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting Denver, CO, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yuan, M. M. Roberts, P. Zhang, B. N. Park, L. J. Klein, D. E. Savage, F. S. Flack, Z. Ma, P. G. Evans, M. A. Eriksson, G. K. Celler, and M. G. Lagally, “Silicon-based nanomembrane materials: the ultimate in strain engineering,” in Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF), San Diego, CA, 2006, pp. 327–333.

Z. Ma and L. Sun, “Will future RFIC be flexible?(Invited),” in IEEE 10th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference,2009. WAMICON '09., Clearwater, FL, 2009, pp. 1–5.
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L. Li, H. Lin, Y. Zou, and J. Hu, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, and S. Qiao, N. Lu, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson are preparing a manuscript to be called “3-D integrated flexible glass photonics.”

D. Guidotti, Y. Jianjun, M. Blaser, V. Grundlehner, and G. Chang, “Edge viewing photodetectors for strictly in-plane lightwave circuit integration and flexible optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of 56th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 782–788.
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T. Shibata and A. Takahashi, “Flexible opto-electronic circuit board for in-device interconnection,” in Proc. 58th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (IEEE, 2008), pp. 261–267.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Pure bending of a multi-layer structure, whose the top and bottom surfaces undergo tensile and compressive strain, respectively. The neutral plane position is specified by Eq. (1). Strains vanishes at the neutral plane, and thus maximum bending flexibility is achieved when the photonic devices are located at the plane; (b) finite element simulated through-thickness strain distribution in structures bent to a radius of 1 mm: the blue curve corresponds to strain in a polyimide (10 μm)-silicone (50 μm)-polyimide (10 μm) tri-layer structure, and the red curve plots strain in a single polyimide layer of the same total thickness (70 μm). The large, three-orders-of-magnitude modulus mismatch between silicone and polyimide results in significant shear strain in silicone which invalidates Eq. (1) and effectively relieves the strain on the multi-layer stack surfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General process illustration for crystalline semiconductor membrane release, transfer and stacking. (a) Begin with source material (e.g., SOI, GeOI, III-V multi layers with a sacrificial layer). Metallization can be applied here, if needed. (b) Pattern top layer into membrane (or strip forms) down to the sacrificial layer. (c) Release membrane by undercutting the sacrificial layer. (d) Fully released membrane settles down on the handling substrate via van der Waals force (“in-place bonding”). Direct flip transfer: (e1). Apply glue on host (e.g., flexible) substrate and attach it to the handling substrate. (f1) Lift-up the host substrate and flip to complete the transfer. Glue can be dissolved if needed. Stamp-assisted transfer: (e2) Bring a stamp (e.g., Polydimethylsiloxane, or PDMS) toward the handling substrate, press and lift-up. (f2) Apply the stamp with membrane attached to a new host substrate (which can be coated with glue, but not necessary). (g2) Slowly peel off the stamp or remove the stamp with shear force, leaving the membrane to stay on the new host substrate. Multiple layers can be applied by repeating (a)-(f1) or (a)-(g2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flexible RF transistors and switches: (a) An array of 12 GHz Si-NM-based thin-film transistor integrated with passives on a bent plastic substrate (Cover page on journal Small, Nov. 20, 2010; image courtesy of [57]); (b) An optical image of the fabricated device, with channel length 1.0 um; (c) Measured device speed figures of merit; and (d) Flexible 20 GHz RF switches.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modified process for air hole PhC NM structure transfer. Single layer NM pattern (a), release (b), and transfer (c) process, along with experimental results (bottom): (i) SEM image of top and (ii) cross-sectional view of patterned Si-NM on SOI, (iii) SEM images of patterned Si-NM after BHF etching of BOX layer underneath the pattern area, (iv) a micrograph of a 3 × 3 mm patterned NM transferred onto 1x1” flexible PET substrate (image courtesy of [1]).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fabrication process flow for monolithically integrated flexible photonic devices: the flexible substrate is first attached to a rigid substrate for ease of handling, followed by optical film deposition and patterning to form the device structures. The encapsulated devices are peeled off from the rigid handler to complete the fabrication process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Single step thermal nanoimprint direct patterning process on plastic substrates; (b) optical micrograph of As2Se8 chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators fabricated on a PET plastic substrate using imprint. The color variation is due to thickness non-uniformity of the PET substrate; (c) photo of chalcogenide glass resonator devices printed on a flexible substrate. The device shows a loaded Q factor of 104.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic cross-sectional structure of an embodiment of fully-integrated flexible optical link for chip-to-chip interconnects, which consists of an array of optical waveguides on a common flexible substrate as well as active components (lasers and detectors) bonded onto the flexible substrate and optically coupled to the waveguides; (b) photo of a prototypical flexible optical link (image courtesy of [4]); (c) schematic view of the optical link shown in Fig. 7(b) with embedded waveguides, micro-mirrors, and optoelectronic components (image courtesy of [4]).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Photo of a flexible resonator sample chip under testing: optical transmission through the bus waveguides is monitored in situ using fiber end fire coupling as the flexible chip is bent; inset shows the top-view optical micrograph of a pullery-coupled [87] micro-disk resonator fabricated on a flexible substrate; (b) micro-disk resonant wavelength shift induced by bending of the flexible chip: dots of each color are data points collected on one sample, and the resonator top/bottom cladding layer thickness combinations were varied among different samples, which resulted in the different magnitudes and signs of the wavelength shift as the samples are bent; (c) the same set of wavelength shift data in Fig. 8(b) re-plotted as a function of local strain at the resonators. The solid line is the theoretical prediction of Eq. (2) based on finite element strain distribution simulation results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) SEM image of a photonic crystal cavity comprising a hexagonal array of silicon nanowires; the PhC was subsequently infiltrated with PDMS elastomer to form the stretchable cavity; (b) cavity resonance shift under mechanical stretching as a function of strain along the cavity, where strain is defined as the percentage change of the cavity length. Two stretching directions were explored (optical images): along or orthogonal to the line defect (image courtesy of [14]).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematics of (a) a lateral Si MSM photodetector (PD), and (b) a vertical InP p-i-n photodetector, based on transferred crystalline semiconductor nanomembrane processes (image courtesy of [39]).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Flexible InP photodetectors under bending: measured photocurrent with 533 nm light sources at different optical power; and (b) Flexible InP solar cells under bending: measured current under standard AM solar simulator test conditions at room temperature (image courtesy of [39]).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Demonstration of flexible LEDs based on InGaAsP QW NM transferred onto PET substrates. (a) SEM images of 8 by 8 devices on PET substrate after testing. (b) SEM image of top ring contact linked by interconnect layer and passivated by a SiO2 layer. (c) Image of devices transferred onto PET substrate. (d) Image of devices under probing test. (e) Image of fabricated devices on Au coated PET substrate (image courtesy of [62]).

Equations (2)

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z( ε=0 )= i=1 n E i d i [ ( j=1 i d j ) d i 2 ] / i=1 n E i d i
dλ dε = i [ λ n g Γ i ( dn dε ) i ] + n eff n g λ L dL dε + λ n g d n eff dε

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