Abstract

We investigate the temperature dependence of the emission wavelength and reflection band of polymer Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and defect Distributed FeedBack (DFB) lasers fabricated using a coextrusion melt-process. We show the measured spectral shifts are a direct consequence of the optical path modifications associated with layer expansion and thermo-optic coefficients. By varying the choice of polymer bilayers and sandwiching the DBR laser films between glass coverslips, we fabricated DBR lasers that are either readily tunable up to 0.36nm/°C or made thermally stable at 0.035nm/°C.

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  1. H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Song, “Melt-processable polymeric photonic crystals and their applications as nano-layered laser films,” Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University (2012).
  4. G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, N. J. Dawson, G. Mao, J. B. Petrus, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, and H. Song, “Folding flexible co-extruded all-polymer multilayer distributed feedback films to control lasing,” Opt. Express20, 15580–15588 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).
  10. N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).
  11. D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. S. Krause and Z.-H. Lu, “Refractive index-temperature measurements on anionically polymerized polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed.19, 1925–1928 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Simha and R. F. Boyer, “On a general relation involving the glass temperature and coefficients of expansion of polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.37, 1003–1007 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S.-L. Chua, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, M. Soljac̆ić, and J. Bravo-Abad, “Low-threshold lasing action in photonic crystal slabs enabled by Fano resonances,” Opt. Express19, 1539–1562 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Andrews, K. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, K. Comeau, B. Shakya, A. Bishop, and R. Livingston, “Role of group velocity delay in Faraday rotation in a multilayer polymer lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29, 1038–1047 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

S. Krause and Z.-H. Lu, “Refractive index-temperature measurements on anionically polymerized polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed.19, 1925–1928 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

R. Simha and R. F. Boyer, “On a general relation involving the glass temperature and coefficients of expansion of polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.37, 1003–1007 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, W.

J. F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (CRC Press LLC, 2001).

Andrews, J.

M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Andrews, K. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, K. Comeau, B. Shakya, A. Bishop, and R. Livingston, “Role of group velocity delay in Faraday rotation in a multilayer polymer lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29, 1038–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, J. H.

J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, N. J. Dawson, G. Mao, J. B. Petrus, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, and H. Song, “Folding flexible co-extruded all-polymer multilayer distributed feedback films to control lasing,” Opt. Express20, 15580–15588 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baer, E.

J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, N. J. Dawson, G. Mao, J. B. Petrus, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, and H. Song, “Folding flexible co-extruded all-polymer multilayer distributed feedback films to control lasing,” Opt. Express20, 15580–15588 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Andrews, K. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, K. Comeau, B. Shakya, A. Bishop, and R. Livingston, “Role of group velocity delay in Faraday rotation in a multilayer polymer lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29, 1038–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A.

Boyer, R. F.

R. Simha and R. F. Boyer, “On a general relation involving the glass temperature and coefficients of expansion of polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.37, 1003–1007 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

Brommer, K. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cariou, J. M.

Caruge, J.-M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, Y.

Chua, S.-L.

Comeau, K.

Crescimanno, M.

Dattelbaum, D. M.

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, N.

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

Dawson, N. J.

Dugas, J.

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiltner, A.

M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Andrews, K. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, K. Comeau, B. Shakya, A. Bishop, and R. Livingston, “Role of group velocity delay in Faraday rotation in a multilayer polymer lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29, 1038–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, T.

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krause, S.

S. Krause and Z.-H. Lu, “Refractive index-temperature measurements on anionically polymerized polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed.19, 1925–1928 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, R.

Lott, J.

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.-H.

S. Krause and Z.-H. Lu, “Refractive index-temperature measurements on anionically polymerized polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed.19, 1925–1928 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mao, G.

Martin, L.

Meade, R. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, P.

Neel, C.

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrus, J.

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

Petrus, J. B.

Petschek, R. G.

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rappe, A. M.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shackelford, J. F.

J. F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (CRC Press LLC, 2001).

Shakya, B.

Sheffield, S. A.

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simha, R.

R. Simha and R. F. Boyer, “On a general relation involving the glass temperature and coefficients of expansion of polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.37, 1003–1007 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K.

Singer, K. D.

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, N. J. Dawson, G. Mao, J. B. Petrus, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, and H. Song, “Folding flexible co-extruded all-polymer multilayer distributed feedback films to control lasing,” Opt. Express20, 15580–15588 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Soljac?ic, M.

Song, H.

M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Andrews, K. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, K. Comeau, B. Shakya, A. Bishop, and R. Livingston, “Role of group velocity delay in Faraday rotation in a multilayer polymer lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29, 1038–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, N. J. Dawson, G. Mao, J. B. Petrus, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, and H. Song, “Folding flexible co-extruded all-polymer multilayer distributed feedback films to control lasing,” Opt. Express20, 15580–15588 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mao, J. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, K. D. Singer, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, H. Song, and B. Shakya, “Co-extruded mechanically tunable multilayer elastomer laser,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 108–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, “Melt-processable polymeric photonic crystals and their applications as nano-layered laser films,” Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University (2012).

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Stahl, D.

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

Thomas, E. L.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weder, C.

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, M.

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express17, 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, “Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.86, 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dattelbaum, S. A. Sheffield, D. Stahl, M. Weinberg, and C. Neel, “Equation of state and high pressure properties of a fluorinated terpolymer: THV 500,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Simha and R. F. Boyer, “On a general relation involving the glass temperature and coefficients of expansion of polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.37, 1003–1007 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

H. Song, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. H. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.19, 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed. (1)

S. Krause and Z.-H. Lu, “Refractive index-temperature measurements on anionically polymerized polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Phys. Ed.19, 1925–1928 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Rapid Commun. (1)

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.28, 2010–2016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt. (1)

N. Dawson, K. D. Singer, J. H. Andrews, M. Crescimanno, G. Mao, J. Petrus, H. Song, and E. Baer, “Post-process tunability of folded one-dimensional all-polymer photonic crystal microcavity lasers,” Nonlin. Opt. Quant. Opt.45, 101–111 (2012).

Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt. (1)

J. Zhou, K. D. Singer, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “All-polymer distributed feedback and distributed Bragg-reflector lasers produced by roll-to-roll layer-multiplying co-extrusion,” Nonlinear Opt. Quant. Opt.41, 59–71 (2010).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Toward roll-to-roll production of polymer microresonator lasers,” Opt. Photonics News19, 28–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 3380–3383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, C. Weder, and K. D. Singer, “Coextruded multilayer all-polymer dye lasers,” in ACS Symposium Series: Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, W. Herman, S. R. Flom, and S. H. Foulger, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2010), pp. 171–184.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, “Melt-processable polymeric photonic crystals and their applications as nano-layered laser films,” Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University (2012).

J. F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (CRC Press LLC, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An adjustable thermostatic chamber surrounds the film sample holder while allowing optical access for the transmittance and laser emission spectra measurements. Diagrams of the multilayer schema for the defect DFB and DBR lasers are shown to the right of the experiment schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission and emission spectra of defect DFB laser films folded on (a) THV and (b) SAN25 at different temperatures. (c) The peak lasing wavelength as a function of temperature for defect DFB lasers folded on (blue circles) THV and (red diamonds) SAN25. The solid lines are linear fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The peak lasing wavelength as a function of temperature for two DBR lasers made by laminating an R6G-doped Lotador cavity between 128-layer films of alternating THV/EO (right, blue triangles) and PS/PMMA (left, green circles). The lines in both graphs are the linear fits the experimental data. Note that the right and left axes are drawn to the same scale but over slightly shifted spectral regions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermo-spectral emission shifts (×10−4/°C)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Thickness (L) and Refractive Index (n) Temperature Dependence (×10−4 /°C)

Metrics