Abstract

A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°).

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2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (11)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A108–A117 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm, “Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A962–A971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Irikawa, S. Miyajima, T. Watahiki, and M. Konagai, “High efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells using an optimized buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Express4(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kang, S. J. Joo, W. Bahng, J. H. Lee, N. K. Kim, and S. M. Koo, “Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519(11), 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23(48), 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, D. D. Corell, C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A166–A172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(2), 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Amrani, R. Tadjine, and F. Y. Moussa, “Microstructures formation by fluorocarbon barrel plasma etching,” Int. J. Plasma Sci. Eng.2008, 371812 (2008).

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. A. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, and J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 2242–2244 (2002) .
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(15), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical-properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)29(7), 993–1009 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(15), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aijaz, I.

Akasaki, I.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, C.

C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, and J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 2242–2244 (2002) .
[CrossRef]

Baek, S.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23(48), 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahng, W.

M. S. Kang, S. J. Joo, W. Bahng, J. H. Lee, N. K. Kim, and S. M. Koo, “Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. P.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

Chen, M.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Clifton, P. H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. E.

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corell, D. D.

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dam-Hansen, C.

DenBaars, S. P.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Dierolf, V.

Draheim, J.

Ee, Y. K.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakurai, H.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seko, T.

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23(48), 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivaraman, R.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, and J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 2242–2244 (2002) .
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

Song, Y. M.

Spatz, J.

Speck, J. S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suda, J.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. H.

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Syväjärvi, M.

Tadjine, R.

A. El Amrani, R. Tadjine, and F. Y. Moussa, “Microstructures formation by fluorocarbon barrel plasma etching,” Int. J. Plasma Sci. Eng.2008, 371812 (2008).

Tamura, K.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teramae, F.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, A.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walish, J.

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wallrabe, U.

Watahiki, T.

J. Irikawa, S. Miyajima, T. Watahiki, and M. Konagai, “High efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells using an optimized buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Express4(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wellmann, P.

Wetzel, C.

Weyers, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. J.

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical-properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)29(7), 993–1009 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(2), 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakimova, R.

Yang, Z.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C. I.

Yoshimoto, M.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Zaslavsky, A.

C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, and J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 2242–2244 (2002) .
[CrossRef]

Zhai, L.

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(2), 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23(48), 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, J. Walish, A. Nolte, L. Zhai, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Deformable antireflection coatings from polymer and nanoparticle multilayers,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2699–2702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. Irikawa, S. Miyajima, T. Watahiki, and M. Konagai, “High efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells using an optimized buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Express4(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, and J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 2242–2244 (2002) .
[CrossRef]

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(15), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Plasma Sci. Eng. (1)

A. El Amrani, R. Tadjine, and F. Y. Moussa, “Microstructures formation by fluorocarbon barrel plasma etching,” Int. J. Plasma Sci. Eng.2008, 371812 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (2)

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kang, S. J. Joo, W. Bahng, J. H. Lee, N. K. Kim, and S. M. Koo, “Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. A. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical-properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)29(7), 993–1009 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaiser, P. Wellmann, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Express20(7), 7575–7579 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A108–A117 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm, “Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A962–A971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, D. D. Corell, C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A166–A172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Yeo, J. H. Kwon, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective disordered subwavelength structure on GaAs using spin-coated Ag ink mask,” Opt. Express20(17), 19554–19562 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20(24), 26160–26166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628, 721628-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519(11), 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the stochastic SiC ARS fabrication flow (left). Schematic illustration of surface evolution during RIE due to ion bombardment, indicated by the straight blue arrows (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An oblique-view scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a SiC sample with ARS, before removal of the residual masking. The white arrows indicate locations with Al hard masking and micromasking respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra for bare and ARS SiC substrates fabricated using deposited Al layers with thicknesses 20, 40 and 60 nm. The inset oblique-view SEM images show corresponding stochastic landscapes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance measurements of nanostructured SiC fabricated with different a) RF power; b) pressure. The inset oblique-view SEM images show the landscape of stochastic nanostructures which correspond to the lowest (upper image) and highest (lower image) reflectance. The corresponding RIE conditions are indicated together with the achieved reflectance range and ramping step.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance measurements of nanostructured SiC fabricated with different a) oxygen percentage; b) total flow rate. The inset oblique-view SEM images show the landscape of stochastic nanostructures which correspond to the lowest (upper image) and highest (lower image) reflectance. The corresponding RIE conditions are indicated together with the achieved reflectance range and ramping step.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra and water contact angle measurements on bare and stochastic ARS SiC surfaces.

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