Abstract

Phase-change materials (PCMs) have great potential in applications for data storage, optical switching and tunable photonic devices. However, heating the whole of the phase change material at a high speed presents a key challenge. Here, for the first time, we model the incorporation of the phase-change material (Ge2Sb2Te5) within a metamaterial perfect absorber (MMPA) and show that the temperature of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 can be raised from room temperature to > 900K (melting point of Ge2Sb2Te5) in just a few nanoseconds with a low light intensity of 150 W/m2, owing to the enhanced light absorption through strong plasmonic resonances in the absorber. Our structure is composed of an array of thin gold (Au) squares separated from a continuous Au film by a Ge2Sb2Te5 layer. A Finite Element Method photothermal model is used to study the temporal variation of temperature in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer. It is also shown that an absorber with a widely tunable spectrum can be obtained by switching between the amorphous and crystalline states of Ge2Sb2Te5. The study lowers the power requirements for photonic devices based on a thermal phase change and paves the way for the realization of ultrafast photothermally tunable photonic devices.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

2012 (6)

Q. Feng, M. Pu, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Engineering the dispersion of metamaterial surface for broadband infrared absorption,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2133–2135 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dayal and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Design of highly absorbing metamaterials for Infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express20(16), 17503–17508 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultra-fast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wuttig and M. Salinga, “Phase-Change Materials: Fast transformers,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 270–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

F. Xiong, A. D. Liao, D. Estrada, and E. Pop, “Low-power switching of Phase-Change Materials with carbon nanotube electrodes,” Science332(6029), 568–570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial Phase-Change Memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Makino, J. Tominaga, and M. Hase, “Ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements in chalcogenide alloy memory materials,” Opt. Express19(2), 1260–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, I. C. Khoo, S. Chen, and T. J. Huang, “Polarization-independent dual-band infrared perfect absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal elliptical nanodisk array,” Opt. Express19(16), 15221–15228 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application as Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Shelton, K. R. Coffey, and G. D. Boreman, “Experimental demonstration of tunable phase in a thermochromic infrared-reflectarray metamaterial,” Opt. Express18(2), 1330–1335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

G. Bruns, P. Merkelbach, C. Schlockermann, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, T. D. Happ, J. B. Philipp, and M. Kund, “Nanosecond switching in GeTe phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-Dimensional Optical Recording Mediated by Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater.7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Redaelli, A. Pirovano, A. Benvenuti, and A. L. Lacaita, “Threshold switching and phase transition numerical models for phase change memory simulations,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 111101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. H. Lee, Y. Jung, and R. Agarwal, “Highly scalable non-volatile and ultra-low-power phase-change nanowire memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(10), 626–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer Cell Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in the Near-Infrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys.89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Chen and P. Hui, “Thermal conductivities of evaporated gold films on silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(20), 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

S. H. Lee, Y. Jung, and R. Agarwal, “Highly scalable non-volatile and ultra-low-power phase-change nanowire memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(10), 626–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benvenuti, A.

A. Redaelli, A. Pirovano, A. Benvenuti, and A. L. Lacaita, “Threshold switching and phase transition numerical models for phase change memory simulations,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 111101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruns, G.

G. Bruns, P. Merkelbach, C. Schlockermann, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, T. D. Happ, J. B. Philipp, and M. Kund, “Nanosecond switching in GeTe phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, T.

Chen, G.

G. Chen and P. Hui, “Thermal conductivities of evaporated gold films on silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(20), 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-Dimensional Optical Recording Mediated by Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, T. C.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cobley, C. M.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coffey, K. R.

Cryan, M. J.

Dayal, G.

De Angelis, F.

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, A. Y.

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer Cell Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in the Near-Infrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer Cell Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in the Near-Infrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estrada, D.

F. Xiong, A. D. Liao, D. Estrada, and E. Pop, “Low-power switching of Phase-Change Materials with carbon nanotube electrodes,” Science332(6029), 568–570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Q.

Fons, P.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial Phase-Change Memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, I.

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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
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L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater.7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
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G. Bruns, P. Merkelbach, C. Schlockermann, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, T. D. Happ, J. B. Philipp, and M. Kund, “Nanosecond switching in GeTe phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043108 (2009).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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Shi, L. P.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater.7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
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J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultra-fast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
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T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
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R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
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Tominaga, J.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial Phase-Change Memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 501–505 (2011).
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K. Makino, J. Tominaga, and M. Hase, “Ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements in chalcogenide alloy memory materials,” Opt. Express19(2), 1260–1270 (2011).
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R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
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Tung, C. H.

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uruga, T.

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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Wang, W. J.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
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W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
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V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys.89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application as Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
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M. Wuttig and M. Salinga, “Phase-Change Materials: Fast transformers,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 270–271 (2012).
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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater.7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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F. Xiong, A. D. Liao, D. Estrada, and E. Pop, “Low-power switching of Phase-Change Materials with carbon nanotube electrodes,” Science332(6029), 568–570 (2011).
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R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial Phase-Change Memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 501–505 (2011).
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M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
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M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
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L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
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L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
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D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
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Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
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T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(6), 1580–1585 (2013).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(13), 137404 (2005).
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D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
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W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
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Zhou, L.

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
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V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys.89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
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P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-Dimensional Optical Recording Mediated by Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
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ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(14), 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bruns, P. Merkelbach, C. Schlockermann, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, T. D. Happ, J. B. Philipp, and M. Kund, “Nanosecond switching in GeTe phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043108 (2009).
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T. C. Chong, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, P. K. Tan, J. M. Li, H. K. Lee, X. S. Miao, A. Y. Du, and C. H. Tung, “Phase change random access memory cell with superlattice-like structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 122114 (2006).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer Cell Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in the Near-Infrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys.89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
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A. Redaelli, A. Pirovano, A. Benvenuti, and A. L. Lacaita, “Threshold switching and phase transition numerical models for phase change memory simulations,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 111101 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Nano Lett.10(2), 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application as Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

L. Zhang, J. Hao, H. Ye, S. P. Yeo, M. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and C. W. Qiu, “Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light,” Nanoscale5(8), 3373–3379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (4)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater.7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages Covered by Smart Polymers for Controlled Release with Near-Infrared Light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wuttig and M. Salinga, “Phase-Change Materials: Fast transformers,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 270–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultra-fast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial Phase-Change Memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 501–505 (2011).
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S. H. Lee, Y. Jung, and R. Agarwal, “Highly scalable non-volatile and ultra-low-power phase-change nanowire memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(10), 626–630 (2007).
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Nature (1)

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-Dimensional Optical Recording Mediated by Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xiong, A. D. Liao, D. Estrada, and E. Pop, “Low-power switching of Phase-Change Materials with carbon nanotube electrodes,” Science332(6029), 568–570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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