Abstract

Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals were prepared by a facile solvothermal method. By adjusting the LiOH concentration, LiYF4 crystals with the size range from 16 nm to 2.0 μm were synthesized. Under the excitation by a 976 nm laser, upconversion quantum efficiency of the LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ samples were measured. It was observed that upconversion quantum efficiency tended to decrease with the reduction of particle size from microscale to nanoscale. A model was proposed to clarify the surface quenching mechanism influencing the size-dependent upconversion luminescence.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Lim, W. S. Ryu, and R. H. Austin, “Particle size dependence of the dynamic photophysical properties of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Opt. Express18(3), 2309–2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, H.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assaaoudi, H.

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, R. H.

Baik, S.-I.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J. C.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, K. R.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demopoulos, G. P.

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, Z.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, W.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, J.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P.

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldys, E. M.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, K.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hyeon, T.

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Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
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J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
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J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
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Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
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Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
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Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
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X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
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J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
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J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
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G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
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X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
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L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, W. S.

Schietinger, S.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
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J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, I. C.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
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Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, R. N.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
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Uddi, M.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
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J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
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V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, R.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P.

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, X.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C. H.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, N.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yasutake, O.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.-Y.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. W.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, B.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, J.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Chim. (1)

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry (1)

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CrystEngComm (1)

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (5)

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
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P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals prepared with 25, 20, 15, and 10 mmol LiOH. (b) TEM and (c) HR-TEM images of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ NCs prepared with 25 mmol LiOH. (d) The schematic graph for shape and size. (e) TEM and (f-g) SEM of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals prepared with 20, 15, and 10 mmol LiOH, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FTIR spectra of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ with the size of (a) 16 nm, sample L1, (b) 27 nm, sample L2, (c) 220 nm, sample L3, and (d) 1.5 μm, sample L4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Emission spectra of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ samples with 16, 27, 220 nm, and 1.5μm (L1-L4), respectively, under the 976 nm LD excitation of 300mW. (b) Dependence of B/G and R/G integrated intensity ratio on the average particle size. (c) Schematic energy level diagram of Er3+ and Yb3+ and possible upconversion emission processes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the total emissions and that of UC visible emissions (UC QE) on the average particle size. Inserts are the photography of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals under a 976 nm LD pumping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The decay curves of (a) 408 nm, (b) 550 nm, and (c) 650 nm of LiYF4: 1%Er3+/20%Yb3+ samples with different size under the excitation of 976 nm LD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The relation between the Surf/Vol ratio and the reciprocal of measured lifetime for the UC emissions of 408, 550, and 650 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental conditions and the grain size of the corresponding products synthesized at 180 °C for 12h

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QE= I ems (λ)C(λ)dλ I reference (λ)C(λ)dλ I sample (λ)C(λ)dλ
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W NR
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W in + W surf + W ligand
W surf =VM w surf (Surf/Vol)
W ligand =VN w ligand (Surf/Vol)
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W in +V(M w surf +N w ligand )(Surf/Vol)
I/ I 0 = A 1 exp(t/ τ 1 )+ A 2 exp(t/ τ 2 )+ A 3 exp(t/ τ 3 )
W NR = (1+n) p
n= [exp( hω kT )1] 1
p= ΔE hω
( W NR ) 408 > ( W NR ) 650 > ( W NR ) 550

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