Abstract

We report on a straightforward preparation method to obtain a dense layer of quasi-spherical aluminum nanoparticles over a large area. The method is based on rapid thermal annealing of a thin aluminum film deposited on a super-repellent substrate. Diameters ranging from 2 to 15 nm are obtained by varying the film thickness. Aluminum nanoparticles exhibit well-defined localized surface plasmon resonances in the ultraviolet range as revealed by extinction measurements and confirmed by Mie theory.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
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  2. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Mupparapu, K. Vynck, I. Malfanti, S. Vignolini, M. Burresi, P. Scudo, R. Fusco, and D. Wiersma, “Enhanced downconversion of UV light by resonant scattering of aluminum nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.37, 368–370 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).
  10. I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
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  16. I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Bhushan, Handbook of Modern Tribology (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 1.
  19. T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2012

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mupparapu, K. Vynck, I. Malfanti, S. Vignolini, M. Burresi, P. Scudo, R. Fusco, and D. Wiersma, “Enhanced downconversion of UV light by resonant scattering of aluminum nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.37, 368–370 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jiao and S. Blair, “Optical antenna design for fluorescence enhancement in the ultraviolet,” Opt. Express20, 29909–29922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Accardo, A.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, Z.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkay, Z.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

B. Bhushan, Handbook of Modern Tribology (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 1.

Blair, S.

X. Jiao and S. Blair, “Optical antenna design for fluorescence enhancement in the ultraviolet,” Opt. Express20, 29909–29922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burresi, M.

Candeloro, P.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, M. H

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, M. H.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cingolani, R.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cojoc, G.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coluccio, M. L.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cuda, G.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Das, G.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doron-Mor, I.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, Y.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everitt, H. O.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filip-Granit, N.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukube, H.

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, R.

Garcia, M. A.

A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, F.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, D.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).

Halas, N. J.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeffrey, M.

J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).

Jha, S. K.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, X.

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

King, N. S.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, M.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konakahara, T.

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhammer, C.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberale, C.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, J. F.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahdavi, F.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malfanti, I.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. M.

J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).

Mecarini, F.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monde, T.

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, M.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mupparapu, R.

Nemoto, F.

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perozziello, G.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R. J.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pond, J.

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez de la Fuente, O.

A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, I.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).

Schwind, M.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scudo, P.

Serrano, A.

A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, A.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tirinato, L.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toma, A.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vaskevich, A.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

Vynck, K.

Wang, Y.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

Wu, K.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yijian, S.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaccaria, R. P.

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zäch, M.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zoric, I.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano5, 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanostructured films as substrates for enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet-blue spectral region,” Anal. Chem.79, 6480–6487 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H Chowdhury, K. Ray, S. K Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules,” Anal. Chem.81, 1397–1403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, K. Watanabe, S. Yijian, and S. Kawata, “Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater.16, 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. K. Jha, Z. Ahmed, M. Agio, Y. Ekinci, and J. F. Löffler, “Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 1966–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Wu, Y. Lu, H. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced near band edge emission of ZnO via surface plasmon resonance of aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Serrano, O. Rodriguez de la Fuente, and M. A. Garcia, “Extended and localized surface plasmons in annealed Au films on glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 074303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Monde, H. Fukube, F. Nemoto, T. Yoko, and T. Konakahara, “Preparation and surface properties of silica-gel coating films containing branched-polyfluoroalkylsilane,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246, 54–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 6000–6004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett.8, 1461–1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. Mecarini, G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics5, 682–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep.408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Gerard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B77, 045413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Bhushan, Handbook of Modern Tribology (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 1.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, http://nanophotonics.csic.es/static/widgets/ .

J. M. McMahon, M. Jeffrey, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Ultraviolet plasmonics: the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi,” arXiv:0908.2000 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the method to obtain Al-NPs. (a) Comparison between a thin film evaporated on a substrate without (left panel) or with (right panel) a super-repellent surface functionalization. Scale bars on the SEM micrographs are 100 nm. (b) Detailed fabrication steps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Morphological characterization of Al-NPs obtained with three different initial film thicknesses: 2.5 nm (left panel), 5 nm (center panel) and 8 nm (right panel). Images are obtained using (a–c) atomic force microscopy (AFM) and (d–f) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scale bars are 100 nm. The size histograms (g–i) are obtained from the corresponding SEM images. The blue lines correspond to a Gaussian fit of the experimental data: y = exp ( ( x x 0 w ) 2 ). Fit parameters are for 2.5nm thick film, x0 = 5.1 nm and w = 1.3 nm ; for 5 nm thick film, x0 = 6.9 nm and w = 2.9 nm ; for 8 nm thick film, x0 = 11.6 nm and w = 4.5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical characterization of Al films and Al-NPs. (a) Extinction spectroscopy on a continuous aluminum film. (b) Extinction spectroscopy on annealed Al-NPs. The sizes indicated in the legend correspond to the original aluminum film thicknesses. The corresponding Al-NP diameters are given in Fig. 2. Note the different vertical scale for the blue curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blue line: Mie theory extinction spectrum for a single Al sphere (radius a = 1.45 nm) coated with 1.1 nm of alumina (total radius b = 2.55 nm). The surrounding effective medium has a refractive index of next = 1.32 and the refractive index of alumina is nAl2O3 = 1.83. Red marks: corresponding experimental extinction spectrum for Al-NPs from a 2.5-nm thick aluminum film (mean diameter 5.1 nm).

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