Abstract

CsI can be used as a photocathode material in UV photon detectors. The detection efficiency of the detector strongly depends on the photoemission property of the photocathode. CsI is very hygroscopic in nature. This limits the photoelectron yield from the photocathode when exposed to humid air even for a short duration during photocathode mounting or transfer. We report here on the improvement of photoemission properties of both thick (300 nm) and thin (30 nm) UV-sensitive CsI film exposed to humid air by the process of vacuum treatment.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, J.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amadon, A.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Azevedo, C. D. R.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balcerzyk, M.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Besson, P.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, P.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boutboul, T.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braem, A.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Breskin, A.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buzulutskov, A.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chechik, R.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coluzza, C.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, M.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, M.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Cataldo, G.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

dell’Orto, T.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Di Mauro, A.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, J. M. F.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Escada, J.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franco, A.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friese, J.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gallas, A.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garty, G.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gernhauser, R.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guedes, G. P.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoedlmoser, H.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homolka, J.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iacovella, F.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kastenmuller, A.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E.

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lion, G.

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ljubicic, A.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lyashenko, A. V.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maia, J.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Komor, P.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Margaritondo, G.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinengo, P.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miné, P.

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, J.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mormann, D.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nappi, E.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paic, G.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peskov, V.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piuz, F.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Posa, F.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santiard, J. C.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sartori, P.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schyns, E.

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sgobba, S.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shefer, E.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. K.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasileiadis, G.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, T. D.

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Z.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeitelhack, K.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Instrum.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” J. Instrum.5(01), P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

H. Hoedlmoser, A. Braem, G. De Cataldo, M. Davenport, A. Di Mauro, A. Franco, A. Gallas, P. Martinengo, E. Nappi, F. Piuz, V. Peskov, and E. Schyns, “Production technique and quality evaluation of CsI photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A566(2), 338–350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mormann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A513(1-2), 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A442(1-3), 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xie, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, T. Hu, L. Zhou, X. Cai, J. Fang, B. Yu, Y. Ge, Q. Lu, X. Sun, L. Sun, Z. Xue, Y. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Lu, “Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A689, 79–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Boutboul, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, E. Klein, A. Braem, G. Lion, and P. Miné, “On the surface morphology of thin alkali halide photocathode films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(2-3), 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, A. Amadon, P. Besson, P. Bourgeois, A. Braem, A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, C. Coluzza, A. Di Mauro, J. Friese, J. Homolka, F. Iacovella, A. Ljubicic, G. Margaritondo, P. Miné, E. Nappi, T. dell’Orto, G. Paic, F. Piuz, F. Posa, J. C. Santiard, P. Sartori, S. Sgobba, G. Vasileiadis, and T. D. Williams, “Review of the development of cesium iodide photocathodes for application to large RICH detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A367(1-3), 332–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhauser, A. Kastenmuller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A438(1), 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the working principle of a gaseous photomultiplier with semitransparent and reflective photocathode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the setup used for photocurrent measurement in (a) ST photocathode configuration, (b) Ref photocathode configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of evacuation time on photocurrent for thin film in vacuum as well as in gas medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of evacuation time on photocurrent for thick film in vacuum as well as in gas medium.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of thick CsI film (a) as deposited film, (b) after 1 hour exposure to humid air, (c) after 30 minutes of evacuation, (d) after 45 minutes of evacuation (e) after 1 hour of evacuation.

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