Abstract

Transparent ceramic scintillators with the composition Gd0.3Lu1.6Eu0.1O3 (GLO:Eu) have been prepared by different sintering profiles: a traditional profile consisting of a slow ramp followed by a dwell, and a two-step profile consisting of a fast ramp and short dwell followed by a long dwell at a lower temperature. A subsequent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) step was used to achieve full density and transparency. Two-step sintering allowed full transparency to be achieved after HIPing at 1525°C, while traditionally sintered samples required 1850°C in the HIP to achieve high transparency indicating that two-step sintering is successful in maintaining a small grain size and therefore allowing densification to be decoupled from grain growth during the low temperature HIP step. HIPing at elevated temperatures between 1525 and 1850°C resulted in rapid grain growth from sub-micron to ~300 µm grains. Radioluminescence spectra show negligible difference between samples with sub-micron grain size and those with 300 µm grains.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Lin, S. Zhou, and H. Teng, “Synthesis of Tb3Al5O12 (TAG) transparent ceramics for potential magneto-optical applications,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1833–1836 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ikesue, A. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.78(1), 225–228 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. W. Chen and X. H. Wang, “Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth,” Nature404(6774), 168–171 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Serivalsatit and J. Ballato, “Submicrometer grain-sized transparent erbium-doped Scandia ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(11), 3657–3662 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, S. Zhou, and H. Teng, “Synthesis of Tb3Al5O12 (TAG) transparent ceramics for potential magneto-optical applications,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1833–1836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Serivalsatit and J. Ballato, “Submicrometer grain-sized transparent erbium-doped Scandia ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(11), 3657–3662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. W. Chen and X. H. Wang, “Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth,” Nature404(6774), 168–171 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Ikesue, A. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aung, Y. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

K. Serivalsatit and J. Ballato, “Submicrometer grain-sized transparent erbium-doped Scandia ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(11), 3657–3662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beekman, F. J.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. W.

I. W. Chen and X. H. Wang, “Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth,” Nature404(6774), 168–171 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherepy, N.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cherepy, N. J.

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. R.

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. L.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douissard, P.-A.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Furusato, A.

A. Ikesue, A. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goorden, M. C.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, F.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heemskerk, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, H.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, A. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue, A. Furusato, and K. Kamata, “Fabrication of polycrystalline, transparent YAG ceramics by solid-state reaction method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.78(1), 225–228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, T.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khosroshahi, H. R.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kong, L. B.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, M. A. N.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuger, R.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuntz, J. D.

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, S. Zhou, and H. Teng, “Synthesis of Tb3Al5O12 (TAG) transparent ceramics for potential magneto-optical applications,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1833–1836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, D. W.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, E.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Messing, G.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, K.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, S.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuladen, J.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, Z.

T. Martin, P.-A. Douissard, Z. Seeley, N. Cherepy, S. Payne, E. Mathieu, and J. Schuladen, “New high stopping power thin scintillators based on Lu2O3 and Lu3Ga5-xInxO12 for high resolution x-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2269–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, Z. M.

Z. M. Seeley, Z. R. Dai, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion,” Opt. Mater.35(1), 74–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. M. Seeley, J. D. Kuntz, N. J. Cherepy, and S. A. Payne, “Transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by sinter and HIP optimization,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1721–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Serivalsatit, K.

K. Serivalsatit and J. Ballato, “Submicrometer grain-sized transparent erbium-doped Scandia ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(11), 3657–3662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, G. E. B.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Teng, H.

H. Lin, S. Zhou, and H. Teng, “Synthesis of Tb3Al5O12 (TAG) transparent ceramics for potential magneto-optical applications,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1833–1836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Kolk, E.

J. W. T. Heemskerk, R. Kreuger, M. C. Goorden, M. A. N. Korevaar, S. Salvador, Z. M. Seeley, N. J. Cherepy, E. van der Kolk, S. A. Payne, P. Dorenbos, and F. J. Beekman, “Experimental comparison of high-density scintillators for EMCCD-based gamma ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(14), 4545–4554 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. F.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

I. W. Chen and X. H. Wang, “Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth,” Nature404(6774), 168–171 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

H. R. Khosroshahi, H. Ikeda, K. Yamada, N. Saito, K. Kaneko, K. Hayashi, and K. Nakashima, “Effect of cation doping on mechanical properties of yttria prepared by an optimized two-step sintering process,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3263–3269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. S.

S. F. Wang, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, F. Gu, D. Y. Tang, Z. L. Dong, G. E. B. Tan, W. X. Que, T. S. Zhang, S. Li, and L. B. Kong, “Transparent ceramics: processing, materials and applications,” Prog. Solid State Chem.41(1-2), 20–54 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles for traditional (blue), and 2-step (red) sintering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of GLO:Eu samples after (left) two-step sintering and HIP at 1525 °C, (middle) traditional sintering with 1650°C HIP, and (right) traditional sintering with 1850°C HIP. Samples are 2 mm thick.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron microscope images from the surface of GLO:Eu after thermal etching to show grain size. Two-step sintering followed by HIPing at (A) 1525°C, (B) 1650°C, and (C) 1750°C (optical image).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radioluminescence spectra and integrated light yield for traditional and two step sintered GLO:Eu.

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