Abstract

Erbium doped oxyfluoride glass was synthesized from the molar composition 10.1% Na2CO3 −20.2% PbO −33.7% GeO2 −33.6% TeO2 −2.4% ErF3 by melt quenching technique. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were estimated as Ω2 = 10.8 × 10−20, Ω4 = 1.17 × 10−20, and Ω6 = 4.32 × 10−20 cm2. Radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes were also calculated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for thermal analysis of the sample. Nanocrystals were induced in the glass by heat-treatment. Strong room temperature upconversion emissions were observed at 415, 540, 554 and 667 nm from Er3+ doped sample under 972 nm Ti-sapphire laser excitation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed the presence of NaErF4 crystallites 35 nm in the glassy matrix. The concentration of nanocrystals is found to be low in the middle of the sample and higher close to the surface. Time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) was used to measure Er3+ lifetimes.

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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Bommareddi, M. Dokhanian, and B. R. Reddy, “Energy upconversion in erbium doped sodium lead germano tellurite glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C6(S1), S67–S70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. S. Qiao, X. P. Fan, J. Wang, and M. Q. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis and luminescence behavior of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.99(7), 074302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses pumped at 1.48 μm,” Phys. Rev. B55(10), 6335–6342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Infrared to visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped oxide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(11), 1327–1329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter46(6), 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hirao, S. Todoroki, and N. Soga, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing in Er3+-doped fluoride glass fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids143, 40–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B45(9), 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

F. Auzel, D. Pecile, and D. Morin, “Rare earth doped vitroceramics: new, efficient, blue and green emitting materials for infrared up-conversion,” J. Electrochem. Soc.122(1), 101–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev.157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

S. Nielsen, W. D. Lawson, and A. F. Fray, “Some infrared transmitting glasses containing germanium dioxide,” Infrared Phys.1(1), 21–26 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses pumped at 1.48 μm,” Phys. Rev. B55(10), 6335–6342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, D. Pecile, and D. Morin, “Rare earth doped vitroceramics: new, efficient, blue and green emitting materials for infrared up-conversion,” J. Electrochem. Soc.122(1), 101–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Beggiora, M.

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bommareddi, S.

S. Bommareddi, M. Dokhanian, and B. R. Reddy, “Energy upconversion in erbium doped sodium lead germano tellurite glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C6(S1), S67–S70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, L. A.

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

da Costa, E. B.

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses pumped at 1.48 μm,” Phys. Rev. B55(10), 6335–6342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dejneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

S. Bommareddi, M. Dokhanian, and B. R. Reddy, “Energy upconversion in erbium doped sodium lead germano tellurite glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C6(S1), S67–S70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. P.

X. S. Qiao, X. P. Fan, J. Wang, and M. Q. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis and luminescence behavior of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.99(7), 074302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fray, A. F.

S. Nielsen, W. D. Lawson, and A. F. Fray, “Some infrared transmitting glasses containing germanium dioxide,” Infrared Phys.1(1), 21–26 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter46(6), 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, H.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hays, M.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao, S. Todoroki, and N. Soga, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing in Er3+-doped fluoride glass fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids143, 40–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B45(9), 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

Hu, L.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G.

Kassab, L. R. P.

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, R. A.

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, W. D.

S. Nielsen, W. D. Lawson, and A. F. Fray, “Some infrared transmitting glasses containing germanium dioxide,” Infrared Phys.1(1), 21–26 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses pumped at 1.48 μm,” Phys. Rev. B55(10), 6335–6342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, S.

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses pumped at 1.48 μm,” Phys. Rev. B55(10), 6335–6342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, K.

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. H.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morin, D.

F. Auzel, D. Pecile, and D. Morin, “Rare earth doped vitroceramics: new, efficient, blue and green emitting materials for infrared up-conversion,” J. Electrochem. Soc.122(1), 101–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naranjo, L. P.

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, S.

S. Nielsen, W. D. Lawson, and A. F. Fray, “Some infrared transmitting glasses containing germanium dioxide,” Infrared Phys.1(1), 21–26 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohyagi, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter46(6), 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onodera, N.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pecile, D.

F. Auzel, D. Pecile, and D. Morin, “Rare earth doped vitroceramics: new, efficient, blue and green emitting materials for infrared up-conversion,” J. Electrochem. Soc.122(1), 101–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, X. S.

X. S. Qiao, X. P. Fan, J. Wang, and M. Q. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis and luminescence behavior of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.99(7), 074302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reaney, I. M.

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B. R.

S. Bommareddi, M. Dokhanian, and B. R. Reddy, “Energy upconversion in erbium doped sodium lead germano tellurite glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C6(S1), S67–S70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Infrared to visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped oxide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(11), 1327–1329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

L. A. Bueno, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, E. B. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Structural and spectroscopic study of oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics using europium ion as a structural probe,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santa Cruz, P. A.

C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B45(9), 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter46(6), 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hirao, S. Todoroki, and N. Soga, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing in Er3+-doped fluoride glass fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids143, 40–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B45(9), 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter46(6), 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhomirova, S. A.

M. Beggiora, I. M. Reaney, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and S. A. Tikhomirova, “Phase evolution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 476–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Todoroki, S.

K. Hirao, S. Todoroki, and N. Soga, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing in Er3+-doped fluoride glass fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids143, 40–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, A.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, M. Hays, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Studies of Er3+ doped germanate-oxyfluoride and tellurium-germanate-oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(8), 801–806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Infrared to visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped oxide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(11), 1327–1329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

X. S. Qiao, X. P. Fan, J. Wang, and M. Q. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis and luminescence behavior of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.99(7), 074302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. Q.

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[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev.157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Suzuki, S. Masaki, K. Mizuno, and Y. Ohishi, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Er3+:YLiF4 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(7), 072601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, L. P. Naranjo, and P. A. Santa Cruz, “Luminescence enhancement of Pb2+ ions in TeO2-PbO-GeO2 glasses containing silver nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Qiao, X. P. Fan, J. Wang, and M. Q. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis and luminescence behavior of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.99(7), 074302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. Yang, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Thermal stability and optical transition of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.39(11), 3641–3646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Mater. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev.157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B45(9), 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DSC curve for the Er3+ doped sodium-lead-germano-tellurite glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD patterns of (a) as-made glass and (b) heat-treated glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of Er3+ doped sodium-lead-germano-tellurite glass recorded (a) before and (b) after heat treatment. 4I15/2 is the ground state and the excited states are marked on the figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Partial energy level diagram of Er3+ in sodium-lead-germano-tellurite glass. Upward, downward and wavy arrows represent absorption, emission and non-radiative relaxation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of 547nm emission observed under 388 nm excitation (TCSPC).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal evolution of 408nm emission observed under 375nm excitation (TCSPC).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy upconversion spectrum observed under 972 nm laser excitation in the wavelength region 300-900 nm for as-made glass and (b) heat- treated glass.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Upconversion spectrum of Er3+-doped glass observed with 0.25mm spectrometer slits. Sharp peaks are due to crystallites.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Decay curve of 4S3/24I15/2 emission observed under 972 nm laser excitation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Energy upconversion spectrum observed under 972 nm laser excitation in the wavelength region 350-500 nm for (a) as-made glass and (b) heat- treated glass.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D hkl = Kλ βcosθ ,
I 4 11/2 + I 4 11/2 F 4 7/2 + I 4 15/2 .

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