Abstract

We investigate the dispersibility of spherical gold nanoparticles in three phases of a chiral liquid crystal – blue phase I, blue phase II and the cholesteric phase – by UV-visible spectroscopy and optical microscopy. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed that a gradual red-shift and broadening of local surface plasmon resonance occur in the blue I and cholesteric phases. Moreover, optical microscopy revealed a clear difference in the aggregation behavior of nanoparticles depending on the phase, with uniform textures being observed in the blue II phase, and agglomerates forming in blue I and cholesteric phases. The difference in the dispersibility of nanoparticles is discussed in terms of the structure of each liquid crystal phase.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Impact of nanoscale particles and carbon nanotubes on current and future generations of liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem.18, 3288–3294 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61, 385–432 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. G. d. Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals(Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. Shiraishi, S. Kobayashi, and N. Toshima, “Improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays by doping with supramolecule-protected metal nanoparticles,” Isr. J. Chem.52, 908–916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Wong, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically reconfigurable and thermally sensitive optical properties of gold nanorods dispersed liquid crystal blue phase,” Soft. Matter7, 7956–7959 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, V. Yannopapas, T. Bürgi, N. Shalkevich, and F. Lederer, “Optical properties of a fabricated self-assembled bottom-up bulk metamaterial,” Opt. Express19, 9607–9616 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Samitsu, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Molecular manipulator driven by spatial variation of liquid-crystalline order,” Nat. Mater.9, 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. P. Alexander and D. Marenduzzo, “Cubic blue phases in electric fields,” Europhys. Lett.81, 66004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Impact of nanoscale particles and carbon nanotubes on current and future generations of liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem.18, 3288–3294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2002

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61, 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, G. P.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Alexander and D. Marenduzzo, “Cubic blue phases in electric fields,” Europhys. Lett.81, 66004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, K.

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, W. F.

S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bürgi, T.

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

J.-M. Wong, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically reconfigurable and thermally sensitive optical properties of gold nanorods dispersed liquid crystal blue phase,” Soft. Matter7, 7956–7959 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cordoyiannis, G.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, Textures of Liquid Crystals(Wiley-VCH, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, D.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gennes, P. G. d.

P. G. d. Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals(Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1993).

Glorieux, C.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegmann, T.

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Impact of nanoscale particles and carbon nanotubes on current and future generations of liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem.18, 3288–3294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higashiguchi, K.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-Y.

J.-M. Wong, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically reconfigurable and thermally sensitive optical properties of gold nanorods dispersed liquid crystal blue phase,” Soft. Matter7, 7956–7959 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karatairi, E.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, K.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Y. Shiraishi, S. Kobayashi, and N. Toshima, “Improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays by doping with supramolecule-protected metal nanoparticles,” Isr. J. Chem.52, 908–916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kralj, S.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabata, S.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lennox, R. B.

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marenduzzo, D.

G. P. Alexander and D. Marenduzzo, “Cubic blue phases in electric fields,” Europhys. Lett.81, 66004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meiboom, S.

S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61, 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Milette, J.

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mühlig, S.

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, G.

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nounesis, G.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Odoi, K.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, M.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. d. Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals(Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1993).

Qi, H.

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Impact of nanoscale particles and carbon nanotubes on current and future generations of liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem.18, 3288–3294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ravnik, M.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reven, L.

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Samitsu, S.

S. Samitsu, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Molecular manipulator driven by spatial variation of liquid-crystalline order,” Nat. Mater.9, 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sammon, M.

S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shalkevich, N.

Shiozaki, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraishi, Y.

Y. Shiraishi, S. Kobayashi, and N. Toshima, “Improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays by doping with supramolecule-protected metal nanoparticles,” Isr. J. Chem.52, 908–916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tagashira, K.

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

S. Samitsu, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Molecular manipulator driven by spatial variation of liquid-crystalline order,” Nat. Mater.9, 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, J.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toader, V.

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toshima, N.

Y. Shiraishi, S. Kobayashi, and N. Toshima, “Improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays by doping with supramolecule-protected metal nanoparticles,” Isr. J. Chem.52, 908–916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzitzios, V.

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, B.

Werner, D. H.

Wong, J.-M.

J.-M. Wong, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically reconfigurable and thermally sensitive optical properties of gold nanorods dispersed liquid crystal blue phase,” Soft. Matter7, 7956–7959 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D. C.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61, 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, S.

Yamamoto, J.

S. Samitsu, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Molecular manipulator driven by spatial variation of liquid-crystalline order,” Nat. Mater.9, 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yannopapas, V.

Yasui, K.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeomans, J. M.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yabu, Y. Tanaka, K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Polarization-independent refractive index tuning using gold nanoparticle-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.36, 3578–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater.23, 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals fabricated by sputter doping,” Adv. Mater.22, 622–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1, 256–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv.

K. Tagashira, K. Asakura, G. Nakazawa, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Increase in interparticle distance of colloidal dipolar chain in nematic liquid crystal by trapping it on splay-bend wall,” AIP Adv.2, 042156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

G. P. Alexander and D. Marenduzzo, “Cubic blue phases in electric fields,” Europhys. Lett.81, 66004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isr. J. Chem.

Y. Shiraishi, S. Kobayashi, and N. Toshima, “Improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays by doping with supramolecule-protected metal nanoparticles,” Isr. J. Chem.52, 908–916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Impact of nanoscale particles and carbon nanotubes on current and future generations of liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem.18, 3288–3294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Milette, V. Toader, L. Reven, and R. B. Lennox, “Tuning the miscibility of gold nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals via the thiol-for-DMAP reaction,” J. Mater. Chem.21, 9043–9050 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10, 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Samitsu, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Molecular manipulator driven by spatial variation of liquid-crystalline order,” Nat. Mater.9, 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. Meiboom, M. Sammon, and W. F. Brinkman, “Lattice of disclinations: the structure of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A27, 438–454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

E. Karatairi, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J.

K. Higashiguchi, K. Yasui, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and H. Kikuchi, “Spatial distribution control of polymer nanoparticles by liquid crystal disclinations,” Polym. J.44, 632–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA108, 5188–5192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61, 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Soft. Matter

J.-M. Wong, J.-Y. Hwang, and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically reconfigurable and thermally sensitive optical properties of gold nanorods dispersed liquid crystal blue phase,” Soft. Matter7, 7956–7959 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Dierking, Textures of Liquid Crystals(Wiley-VCH, 2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. d. Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals(Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1993).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of (a) chiraity-induced twisting of the director, (b) director distribution in BPs I and II, and (c) close-up of an intersection of three double-twist cylinders with left-handed helicity. The LC director can connect continuously in the intersection with right-handed stacking while it cannot in the intersection with left-handed stacking (emphasized by red coloring).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical TEM image and (b) particle size distribution of the AuNPs doped in the 5CB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction spectra acquired at various temperatures, for the (a) reference (non-doped) and (b) AuNP-doped sample. (c) FWHM and peak wavelength of the LSPR peak observed in the AuNP-doped sample. The dotted line has been drawn as a guide to show the red-shift of the LSPR peak in BP I and cholesteric phases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical microscope images of the (a)reference and (b)AuNP-doped samples acquired at various temperatures. See Fig. 10 in Appendix B for polarized transmission and reflection images of each sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical microscope images of the AuNP-doped sample with 8 wt% CD acquired while maintaining the sample temperature at 40.5 °C. (a) Transmission through crossed polarizers, and (b) transmission with analyzer removed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical microscope images of the AuNP-doped sample with 8 wt% CD acquired in BP I. (a) Transmission through crossed polarizers, and (b) transmission with analyzer removed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical microscope images of the AuNP-doped sample with 6 wt% CD acquired at various temperatures. (a) Transmission through crossed polarizers, and (b) transmission with analyzer removed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Redisperion of the aggregated AuNPs in the isotropic phase. Image in the (a) cholesteric phase at 35 °C, (b) isotropic phase at 42.0 °C, (c) after 2 minutes at 42.0 °C, and (d) 7 minutes after heating the sample to 70.0 °C (after taking image (c))

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature dependence of the Bragg reflection peak wavelengths for the 3 samples prepared in this study.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Polarized microscope images of the reference and AuNP-doped samples acquired at various temperatures. (a) Transmission through crossed polarizers, and (b) reflection through crossed polarizers of the reference sample. (c) Transmission through crossed polarizers and (d) reflection through crossed polarizers of the AuNP-doped sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phase Sequence of the Samples Used in Study

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