Abstract

Thermal anneal is known to arrest the growth of laser-induced damage in optical materials. However, the response of the material which leads to this observed behavior is poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the effect of isothermal anneal at 1100°C for 12 hours on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites in fused silica. Growth rate was significantly lower for annealed initiated damage sites than that for untreated sites. This decrease in growth rate was associated with the closure of small surface and subsurface cracks, suggesting that aggressive growth rate is due, at least in part, to subsurface fracture complexity.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Matthews, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, M. A. Norton, S. Yang, J. D. Cooke, G. M. Guss, and J. J. Adams, “Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica,” Proc. SPIE7504, 750410, 750410-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3 omega (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “Microstructure and laser-induced damage threshold of ZrO2 coatings dependence on annealing temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci.239(2), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, “Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3230–3232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Raze, J. M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, M. A. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE4932, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, “Localized CO2 laser treatment for mitigation of 351 nm damage growth on fused silica,” Proc. SPIE4679, 40–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. Dahmani, J. C. Lambropoulos, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, and S. J. Burns, “Fracture of fused silica with 351 nm laser-generated surface cracks,” J. Mater. Res.14(02), 597–605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Zagoruiko, “Modification of optical properties of ZnSe crystals by means of photothermal treatment,” Proc. SPIE3578, 480–483 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser intensity modulation by nonabsorbing defects,” Proc. SPIE2966, 475–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. J. Atherton, F. Rainer, J. J. De Yoreo, I. M. Thomas, N. Zaitseva, and F. De Marco, “Thermal and laser conditioning of production- and rapid-growth KDP and KD*P crystals,” Proc. SPIE2114, 36–45 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, “Viscosity of fused-silica with different hydroxyl contents,” Br. Ceram., Trans. J.90, 59–60 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. A. B. Devine, “On the physical models of annealing of radiation-induced defects in amorphous SiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B46(1-4), 261–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. Hrma, W. T. Han, and A. R. Cooper, “Thermal healing of cracks in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids102(1-3), 88–94 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1972 (1)

C. F. Yen and R. L. Coble, “Spheroidization of tubular voids in Al2O3 crystals at high-temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.55(10), 507–509 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. W. Mullins, “Flattening of a nearly plane solid surface due to capillarity,” J. Appl. Phys.30(1), 77–83 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

N. M. Parikh, “Effect of atmosphere on surface tension of glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.41(1), 18–22 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abdulla, G. M.

Adams, J. J.

R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Matthews, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, M. A. Norton, S. Yang, J. D. Cooke, G. M. Guss, and J. J. Adams, “Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica,” Proc. SPIE7504, 750410, 750410-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, L. J.

L. J. Atherton, F. Rainer, J. J. De Yoreo, I. M. Thomas, N. Zaitseva, and F. De Marco, “Thermal and laser conditioning of production- and rapid-growth KDP and KD*P crystals,” Proc. SPIE2114, 36–45 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bercegol, H.

G. Raze, J. M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, M. A. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE4932, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bin, F.

H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brusasco, R. M.

R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, “Localized CO2 laser treatment for mitigation of 351 nm damage growth on fused silica,” Proc. SPIE4679, 40–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bude, J. D.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. J.

F. Dahmani, J. C. Lambropoulos, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, and S. J. Burns, “Fracture of fused silica with 351 nm laser-generated surface cracks,” J. Mater. Res.14(02), 597–605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. A.

R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, “Localized CO2 laser treatment for mitigation of 351 nm damage growth on fused silica,” Proc. SPIE4679, 40–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

R. A. Negres, G. M. Abdulla, D. A. Cross, Z. M. Liao, and C. W. Carr, “Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics,” Opt. Express20(12), 13030–13039 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, Z. M. Liao, G. M. Abdulla, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and C. W. Carr, “Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics,” Appl. Opt.50(22), D12–D20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, D. A. Cross, and C. W. Carr, “Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation,” Opt. Express18(19), 19966–19976 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coble, R. L.

C. F. Yen and R. L. Coble, “Spheroidization of tubular voids in Al2O3 crystals at high-temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.55(10), 507–509 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D.

Cooke, J. D.

M. J. Matthews, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, M. A. Norton, S. Yang, J. D. Cooke, G. M. Guss, and J. J. Adams, “Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica,” Proc. SPIE7504, 750410, 750410-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A. R.

P. Hrma, W. T. Han, and A. R. Cooper, “Thermal healing of cracks in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids102(1-3), 88–94 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cross, D. A.

Dahmani, F.

F. Dahmani, J. C. Lambropoulos, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, and S. J. Burns, “Fracture of fused silica with 351 nm laser-generated surface cracks,” J. Mater. Res.14(02), 597–605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Marco, F.

L. J. Atherton, F. Rainer, J. J. De Yoreo, I. M. Thomas, N. Zaitseva, and F. De Marco, “Thermal and laser conditioning of production- and rapid-growth KDP and KD*P crystals,” Proc. SPIE2114, 36–45 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

L. J. Atherton, F. Rainer, J. J. De Yoreo, I. M. Thomas, N. Zaitseva, and F. De Marco, “Thermal and laser conditioning of production- and rapid-growth KDP and KD*P crystals,” Proc. SPIE2114, 36–45 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, “Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3230–3232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devine, R. A. B.

R. A. B. Devine, “On the physical models of annealing of radiation-induced defects in amorphous SiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B46(1-4), 261–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Draggoo, V. G.

Elhadj, S.

Fan, Z.

G. Hu, Y. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Xiao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Studies of laser damage morphology reveal subsurface feature in fused silica,” Surf. Interface Anal.42(9), 1465–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
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R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, “Localized CO2 laser treatment for mitigation of 351 nm damage growth on fused silica,” Proc. SPIE4679, 40–47 (2002).
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G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “Microstructure and laser-induced damage threshold of ZrO2 coatings dependence on annealing temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci.239(2), 201–208 (2005).
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J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3 omega (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(3), 255–272 (2006).
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G. Raze, J. M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, M. A. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE4932, 127–135 (2003).
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S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
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J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3 omega (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(3), 255–272 (2006).
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N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
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G. Hu, Y. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Xiao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Studies of laser damage morphology reveal subsurface feature in fused silica,” Surf. Interface Anal.42(9), 1465–1468 (2010).
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Lindsey, E. F.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3 omega (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(3), 255–272 (2006).
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Luthi, R. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
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Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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Miller, P. E.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
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T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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G. Raze, J. M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, M. A. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE4932, 127–135 (2003).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, “Localized CO2 laser treatment for mitigation of 351 nm damage growth on fused silica,” Proc. SPIE4679, 40–47 (2002).
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Peterson, J.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 087401 (2004).
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G. Raze, J. M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, M. A. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE4932, 127–135 (2003).
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C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 087401 (2004).
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F. Dahmani, J. C. Lambropoulos, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, and S. J. Burns, “Fracture of fused silica with 351 nm laser-generated surface cracks,” J. Mater. Res.14(02), 597–605 (1999).
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M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

G. Hu, Y. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Xiao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Studies of laser damage morphology reveal subsurface feature in fused silica,” Surf. Interface Anal.42(9), 1465–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “Microstructure and laser-induced damage threshold of ZrO2 coatings dependence on annealing temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci.239(2), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage resistant fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE4679, 56–68 (2002).
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M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steele, W. A.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stolken, J. S.

M. J. Matthews, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, M. A. Norton, S. Yang, J. D. Cooke, G. M. Guss, and J. J. Adams, “Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica,” Proc. SPIE7504, 750410, 750410-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, J. Nishii, and H. Misawa, “Optically induced defects in vitreous silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154-155, 696–700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151114 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE5273, 325–333 (2004).
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N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, “Viscosity of fused-silica with different hydroxyl contents,” Br. Ceram., Trans. J.90, 59–60 (1991).

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G. Hu, Y. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Xiao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Studies of laser damage morphology reveal subsurface feature in fused silica,” Surf. Interface Anal.42(9), 1465–1468 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. Wan-Qing, H. Wei, W. Fang, X. Yong, L. Fu-Quan, F. Bin, J. Feng, W. Xiao-Feng, Z. Wan-Guo, and Z. Xiao-Min, “Laser-induced damage growth on larger-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett.26(1), 017901 (2009).
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N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng.51(12), 121817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

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[CrossRef]

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G. Hu, Y. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Xiao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Studies of laser damage morphology reveal subsurface feature in fused silica,” Surf. Interface Anal.42(9), 1465–1468 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Shot-by-shot progression of growth rate (mean ± standard error) of damage sites under 10 ± 1 J/cm2, 351 nm laser fluence annealed at 1100°C (circles) compared to that of unannealed sites (squares). (b) Progression of growth rate of large sites (100-200 μm ECD) before and after anneal. Site diameter range and p-values are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of stress-induced birefringence to anneal: (a-b) are images of a large damage site, while (c-d) are images of a small damage site. Arrows point to regions of maximum birefringence outside of the fractured region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of photoluminescence to anneal (pseudo-color) under 355 nm excitation. (a-b) are images of a grown damage site, (c-d) are images of a small damage site.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of SEM images before and after anneal for a large (a-b) and a small (c-d) site. Top arrow (a) indicates a nanofiber, while bottom arrow (c) indicates hackle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top-view (a-d) and side-view (e-h) images showing light scattering response to anneal for sites with different ECD. All images are backlit with the exception of (c-d), which are lit off-axis.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Findings

Equations (2)

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Δσ= λ 2πCd × cos 1 ( 1 2 I 1 I 0 )
α=ln( ECD n ECD n1 )

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