Abstract

CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (CSQDs) and PbS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a colloidal method and incorporated into Ge23Sb7S70 glass films via a solution-derived approach to film formation. Photoluminescence (PL) from the QDs inside the glass matrix was observed in the visible (CdSe/ZnS) and near-IR (PbS) regions. Properties of the QDs were found to be environment dependent, with the amine solvent partially quenching the luminescence. The PL lifetime of the CdSe/ZnS CSQDs and PbS QDs in the glass film was decreased to varying degrees from that of the QDs in pure chloroform. Monitoring the steady-state PL intensity and luminescence lifetime of PbS doped films showed that appropriate heat treatment of the deposited film increases the luminescence efficiency by removing residual solvent from the glass matrix.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Yan, R. Wang, K. Vu, S. Madden, K. Belay, R. Elliman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-As-Se chalcogenide thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1270–1277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bera, L. Qian, T.-K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multi-modal applications: a review,” Materials3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Amelia, A. Lavie-Cambot, N. D. McClenaghan, and A. Credi, “A ratiometric luminescent oxygen sensor based on a chemically functionalized quantum dot,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 325–327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wüsten and K. Potje-Kamloth, “Chalcogenides for thin film NO sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.145(1), 216–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Tolmachov, A. V. Stronski, and M. Vlcek, “Optical properties and structure of As-Ge-Se thin films,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron.13, 276–279 (2010).

2009 (3)

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kang and K. Daneshvar, “Matrix and thermal effects on photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4747–4751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Borisov, V. B. Smirnov, A. Tverjanovich, and Yu. S. Tveryanovich, “Deposition of Er3+ doped chalcogenide glass films by excimer laser ablation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 316–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. P. Losev, I. M. Byteva, and G. P. Gurinovich, “Singlet oxygen luminescence quantum yields in organic solvents and water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.143(2), 127–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 761–763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, G.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso, M. I.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amelia, M.

M. Amelia, A. Lavie-Cambot, N. D. McClenaghan, and A. Credi, “A ratiometric luminescent oxygen sensor based on a chemically functionalized quantum dot,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 325–327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. B.

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashkinadze, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Axente, E.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bakueva, L.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balan, V.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belay, K.

Bera, D.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T.-K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multi-modal applications: a review,” Materials3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Böberl, M.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, E. N.

E. N. Borisov, V. B. Smirnov, A. Tverjanovich, and Yu. S. Tveryanovich, “Deposition of Er3+ doped chalcogenide glass films by excimer laser ablation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 316–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boudies, J.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunker, C. E.

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Byteva, I. M.

A. P. Losev, I. M. Byteva, and G. P. Gurinovich, “Singlet oxygen luminescence quantum yields in organic solvents and water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.143(2), 127–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

Carlie, N.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 761–763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.-W. F.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, P.-T.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Credi, A.

M. Amelia, A. Lavie-Cambot, N. D. McClenaghan, and A. Credi, “A ratiometric luminescent oxygen sensor based on a chemically functionalized quantum dot,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 325–327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daneshvar, K.

K. Kang and K. Daneshvar, “Matrix and thermal effects on photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4747–4751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Muynck, D.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeCorby, R. G.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delerue, C.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y. J.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dror, R.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dussauze, M.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, P. K.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Elliman, R.

Fargin, E.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

Ganjoo, A.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garriga, M.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

Guduru, R.

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gurinovich, G. P.

A. P. Losev, I. M. Byteva, and G. P. Gurinovich, “Singlet oxygen luminescence quantum yields in organic solvents and water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.143(2), 127–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harada, H.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, C. J.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heiss, W.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hens, Z.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesser, G.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hineva, T.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holloway, P. H.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T.-K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multi-modal applications: a review,” Materials3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 761–763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irudayaraj, J.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jarzab, D.

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K.

K. Kang and K. Daneshvar, “Matrix and thermal effects on photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4747–4751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, E.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

Klebanov, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, K.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koughia, K.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, M. V.

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, K.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavie-Cambot, A.

M. Amelia, A. Lavie-Cambot, N. D. McClenaghan, and A. Credi, “A ratiometric luminescent oxygen sensor based on a chemically functionalized quantum dot,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 325–327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitsmann, R.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, R.-T.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-H.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llobera, A.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loi, M. A.

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losev, A. P.

A. P. Losev, I. M. Byteva, and G. P. Gurinovich, “Singlet oxygen luminescence quantum yields in organic solvents and water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.143(2), 127–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. L.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

Luzinov, I.

Lyubin, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyubina, I.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B.

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madsen, C. K.

Manimaran, B.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martins, J. C.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClenaghan, N. D.

M. Amelia, A. Lavie-Cambot, N. D. McClenaghan, and A. Credi, “A ratiometric luminescent oxygen sensor based on a chemically functionalized quantum dot,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 325–327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMullin, J. N.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

Mihailescu, C. N.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihailescu, I. N.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreels, I.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

Mujagic, E.

Munzar, M.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Musgraves, J. D.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musikhin, S.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nollet, T.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novak, J.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Novak, S.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pantano, C. G.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 761–763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, P.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petkova, T.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, C.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Potje-Kamloth, K.

J. Wüsten and K. Potje-Kamloth, “Chalcogenides for thin film NO sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.145(1), 216–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T.-K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multi-modal applications: a review,” Materials3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rajagopal, S.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos, L. E.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

J. Novak, S. Novak, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, F. Adamietz, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment,” Mater. Res. Bull.48(3), 1250–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 761–763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, K. A.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys.97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. V.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schäffler, F.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholes, G. D.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzl, T.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Singh, V.

Smeets, D.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, V. B.

E. N. Borisov, V. B. Smirnov, A. Tverjanovich, and Yu. S. Tveryanovich, “Deposition of Er3+ doped chalcogenide glass films by excimer laser ablation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 316–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Socol, G.

T. Petkova, C. Popov, T. Hineva, P. Petkov, G. Socol, E. Axente, C. N. Mihailescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Characterization of pulsed laser deposited chalcogenide thin layers,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5318–5321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Springholz, G.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. H.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stronski, A. V.

I. D. Tolmachov, A. V. Stronski, and M. Vlcek, “Optical properties and structure of As-Ge-Se thin films,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron.13, 276–279 (2010).

Sun, R.

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. W.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-P.

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Talapin, D. V.

M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarasov, V.

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, R. Sun, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Low-loss integrated planar chalcogenide waveguides for microfluidic chemical sensing,” Proc. SPIE6444, 64440N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thanasekaran, P.

P. Thanasekaran, R.-T. Liao, B. Manimaran, Y.-H. Liu, P.-T. Chou, S. Rajagopal, and K. L. Lu, “Photoluminescence electron-transfer quenching of rhenium(I) rectangles with amines,” J. Phys. Chem. A110(37), 10683–10689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolmachov, I. D.

I. D. Tolmachov, A. V. Stronski, and M. Vlcek, “Optical properties and structure of As-Ge-Se thin films,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron.13, 276–279 (2010).

Tonchev, D.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torregiani, M.

Tsay, C.

Tseng, T.-K.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T.-K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multi-modal applications: a review,” Materials3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, Y. Y.

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tverjanovich, A.

E. N. Borisov, V. B. Smirnov, A. Tverjanovich, and Yu. S. Tveryanovich, “Deposition of Er3+ doped chalcogenide glass films by excimer laser ablation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 316–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tveryanovich, Yu. S.

E. N. Borisov, V. B. Smirnov, A. Tverjanovich, and Yu. S. Tveryanovich, “Deposition of Er3+ doped chalcogenide glass films by excimer laser ablation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 316–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tzolov, M.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanhaecke, F.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vantomme, A.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veinger, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, M. Veinger, R. Dror, and I. Lyubina, “Photoluminescence, photostructural transformations and photoinduced anisotropy in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1599–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vigreux, C.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326–327, 455–459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

I. D. Tolmachov, A. V. Stronski, and M. Vlcek, “Optical properties and structure of As-Ge-Se thin films,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron.13, 276–279 (2010).

Vu, K.

Waldmann, M.

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Werder, D.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wüsten, J.

J. Wüsten and K. Potje-Kamloth, “Chalcogenides for thin film NO sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.145(1), 216–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, K.

Yano, M.

W. Heiss, E. Kaufmann, M. Böberl, T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, G. Hesser, F. Schäffler, K. Koike, H. Harada, M. Yano, R. Leitsmann, L. E. Ramos, and F. Bechstedt, “Highly luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots fabricated by lattice-type mismatched epitaxy,” Physica E35(2), 241–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zdyrko, B.

Zhang, X.-F.

B. Ma, C. E. Bunker, R. Guduru, X.-F. Zhang, and Y.-P. Sun, “Quantitative spectroscopic studies of the photoexcited state properties of methano- and pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. A101(31), 5626–5632 (1997).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Mater. (1)

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2895–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

P. K. Dwivedi, Y. W. Sun, Y. Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 376–380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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M. V. Kovalenko, R. D. Schaller, D. Jarzab, M. A. Loi, and D. V. Talapin, “Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(5), 2457–2460 (2012).
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S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
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Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stern-Volmer plots of CdSe/ZnS CSQDs and PbS QDs with varying concentrations of propylamine. CdSe/ZnS CSQDs were excited at 500 nm, and PbS QDs were excited at 532 nm. Intensities were taken by integrating steady-state PL spectra, with error approximately 5%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of photoluminescence spectrum of (a) PbS QD-doped Ge23Sb7S70 film deposited from a solution containing 17 μM QDs to spectrum of QDs in pure chloroform. The reduction in luminescence intensity at 1150 nm for the QDs in chloroform is due to reabsorption of luminescence, which is also suspected to be responsible for the features at 1125 nm and 1145 nm. Excitation: 532 nm. (b) Comparison of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS CSQDs dispersed in chloroform to that of CSQDs on film surface and in film matrix. The feature at 590 nm in the spectra of CdSe/ZnS CSQDs on the film surface is a reflection artifact of the instrument. Excitation: 500 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoluminescence decays of CdSe/ZnS CSQDs in various environments and instrument response function, along with deconvoluted luminescence lifetimes, using 460 nm pulsed LED excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of photoluminescence intensity of Ge23Sb7S70 films deposited from solutions containing varying concentrations of PbS QDs for various heat treatments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission electron microscopy of a PbS QD doped Ge23Sb7S70 film. (a) is a region containing an aggregation of QDs, with four individual QDs circled in red as a guide to the eye and (b) is a region of the same film with no QDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IR transmission spectra of PbS QD doped Ge23Sb7S70 films deposited from solutions containing 17 μM QD concentration.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Heat Treatments Used for PbS Doped Ge23Sb7S70 Films

Equations (2)

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I 0 I =1+ k SV [Q]=1+ k q τ 0 [Q]
Φ= numberemittedphotons/sec numberabsorbedphotons/sec

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