Abstract

Ionic complexes of azobenzenes and dendritic structures are shown to exhibit efficient light-induced mass transport upon irradiation with a light interference pattern. Surface-relief gratings (SRGs) with modulation depths of up to 550 nm were successfully inscribed. We compare the SRG formation in three generations of supramolecular dendrons, dendrimers, and dendronized polymers and demonstrate that the grating formation process is destructed by the existence of self-assembled structures as well as by overly large size of the dendronic complexes.

© 2013 OSA

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  39. R. Mezzenga, J. Ruokolainen, N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, W. B. Lee, and G. H. Fredrickson, “Frustrated self-assembly of dendron and dendrimer-based supramolecular liquid crystals,” Soft Matter5,92–97 (2009).
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  40. N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, and R. Mezzenga, “Comblike liquid-crystalline polymers from ionic complexation of dendronized polymers and lipids,” Macromolecules40,2822–2830 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. J. Soininen, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, O. Ikkala, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Self-assembly and induced circular dichroism in dendritic supramolecules with cholesteric pendant groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132,10882–10890 (2010).
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  43. Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Real space imaging and molecular packing of dendronized polymer-lipid supramolecular complexes,” Macromolecules40,7609–7616 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  47. N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Functional columnar liquid crystalline phases from ionic complexes of dendronized polymers and sulfate alkyl tails,” Macromol. Symp.270,58–64 (2008).
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  48. M. R. Hammond and R. Mezzenga, “Supramolecular routes towards liquid crystalline side-chain polymers,” Soft Matter4,952–961 (2008).
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  49. C. Li, A. D. Schlüter, A. Zhang, and R. Mezzenga, “A new level of hierarchical structure control by use of supramolecular self-assembled dendronized block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.20,4530–4534 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  54. L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin layers of low molecular azobenzene materials with effective light-induced mass transport,” Langmuir26,2214–2217 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. A. Priimagi, M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, and G. Resnati, “Photoalignment and Surface-relief-grating formation are efficiently combined in low-molecular-weight halogen-bonded complexes,” Adv. Mater.24,OP345–OP352 (2012).
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2012

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater.24,2069–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ambrosio, L. Marrucci, F. Brbone, A. Roviello, and P. Maddalena, “Light-induced spiral mass transport in azo-polymer films under vortex-beam illumination,” Nat. Commun.3,989 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmed, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, and I. Manners, “Redox-active, organometallic surface-relief gratings from azobenzene-containing polyferrocenylsilane block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.24,926–931 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, and G. Resnati, “Photoalignment and Surface-relief-grating formation are efficiently combined in low-molecular-weight halogen-bonded complexes,” Adv. Mater.24,OP345–OP352 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Goldenberg, V. Lisinetskii, Y. Gritsai, J. Stumpe, and S. Schrader, “Second order DFB lasing using reusable grating inscribed in azobenzene-containing material,” Opt. Mater. Express2,11–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Kravchenko, A. Shevchenko, V. Ovchinnikov, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Optical interference lithography using azobenzene-functionalized polymers for micro- and nanopatterning of silicon,” Adv. Mater.23,4174–4177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, T. Alasaarela, J.-I. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem.21,15437–15441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Politzer, J. S. Murray, and T. Clark, “Halogen bonding: an electrostatically-driven highly directional noncovalent interaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12,7748–7757 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vapaavuori, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Photoinduced surface-relief gratings in films of supramolecular polymer–bisazobenzene complexes,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5260–5264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Soininen, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, O. Ikkala, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Self-assembly and induced circular dichroism in dendritic supramolecules with cholesteric pendant groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132,10882–10890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wu, S. Duan, Z. Lei, W. Su, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Supramolecular bisazopolymers exhibiting enhanced photoinduced birefringence and enhanced stability of birefringence for four-dimensional optical recording,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5202–5209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin layers of low molecular azobenzene materials with effective light-induced mass transport,” Langmuir26,2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Merlet-Lacroix, J. Rao, A. Zhang, A. D. Schlüter, S. Bolisetty, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Controlling hierarchical self-assembly in supramolecular tailed-dendron systems,” Macromolecules43,4752–4760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Polarization dependence of holographic grating recording in azobenzene-functionalized polymers monitored by visible and infrared light,” J. Phys. Chem. B114,9751–9760 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Astruc, E. Boisselier, and C. Ornelas, “Dendrimers designed for functions: from physical, photophysical, and supramolecular properties to applications in sensing, catalysis, molecular electronics, photonics, and nanomedicine,” Chem. Rev.110,1857–1959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Deloncle and A.-M. Caminade, “Stimuli-responsive dendritic structures: the case of light-driven azobenzene-containing dendrimers and dendrons,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. C11,25–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hernández-Ainsa, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, M. Marcos, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Ionic photoresponsive azo-codendrimer with room temperature mesomorphism and high photoinduced optical anisotropy,” Macromolecules43,2660–2663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. M. Rosen, C. J. Wilson, D. A. Wilson, M Peterca, M. R. Imam, and V. Percec, “Dendron-mediated self-assembly, disassembly, and self-organization of complex systems,” Chem. Rev.109,6275–6540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1,1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, O. Kulikovska, V. Börger, H. Menzel, and J. Stumpe, “Surface relief gratings in azobenzene-containing polymers with linear and star-branched architectures: a comparison,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210,1809–1817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mezzenga, J. Ruokolainen, N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, W. B. Lee, and G. H. Fredrickson, “Frustrated self-assembly of dendron and dendrimer-based supramolecular liquid crystals,” Soft Matter5,92–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene unit,” Adv. Mater.20,516–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Metrangolo, F. Meyer, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding in supramolecular chemistry,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.47,6114–6127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20,6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Functional columnar liquid crystalline phases from ionic complexes of dendronized polymers and sulfate alkyl tails,” Macromol. Symp.270,58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hammond and R. Mezzenga, “Supramolecular routes towards liquid crystalline side-chain polymers,” Soft Matter4,952–961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. D. Schlüter, A. Zhang, and R. Mezzenga, “A new level of hierarchical structure control by use of supramolecular self-assembled dendronized block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.20,4530–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, T. Takahashi, H. Ando, and Y. Shirota, “Relationship between molecular structure and photoinduced surface relief grating formation using azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials,” J. Mater. Chem.18,242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33,1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Marcos, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, P. Romero, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Photosensitive ionic nematic liquid crystalline complexes based on dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers and a cyanoazobenzene carboxylic acid,” Chem. Mater.20,5209–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Puntoriero, P. Ceroni, V. Balzani, G. Bergamini, and F. Vögtle, “Photoswitchable dendritic hosts: a dendrimer with peripheral azobenzene groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129,10714–10719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Real space imaging and molecular packing of dendronized polymer-lipid supramolecular complexes,” Macromolecules40,7609–7616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, X. Lu, and Q. Lu, “Photosensitive polymer from ionic self-assembly of azobenzene dye and poly(ionic liquid) and its alignment characteristic toward liquid crystal molecules,” Macromolecules40,7944–7950 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, and R. Mezzenga, “Comblike liquid-crystalline polymers from ionic complexation of dendronized polymers and lipids,” Macromolecules40,2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular azobenzene-based materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.19,3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, R. Mezzenga, and A. D. Schlüter, “Liquid-crystalline polymers from cationic dendronized polymer-anionic lipid complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128,13998–13999 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. Börger, H. Menzel, and M. R. Huber, “Influence of the molecular weight of azopolymers on the photo-induced formation of surface relief gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.430,89–97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Saphiannikova and D. Neher, “Thermodynamic theory of light-induced material transport in amorphous azobenzene polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B109,19428–19436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Ceroni, G. Bergamini, F. Marchioni, and V. Balzani, “Luminescence as a tool to investigate dendrimer properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.30,453–473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev.102,4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Ma and A. K. Y. Jen, “Functional dendrimers for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.13,1201–1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, L. Li, A. L. Cholli, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface relief gratings on azocellulose films,” J. Macromol. Sci. A38,1345–1354 (2001).

1999

F. Lagugné Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, “Azopolymer holographic diffraction gratings: time dependent analyses of the diffraction efficiency, birefringence, and surface modulation induced by two linearly polarized interfering beams,” J. Phys. Chem. B103,6690–6699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9,1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.109,1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80,89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D.-Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72,2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of the photo-induced translation diffusion of azobenzene dyes in polymer matrices,” Pure Appl. Opt.7,71–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. L. Jiang and T. Aida, “Photoisomerization in dendrimers by harvesting of low-energy photons,” Nature388,5–7 (1997).

1996

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem.100,8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, R.

R. Ahmed, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, and I. Manners, “Redox-active, organometallic surface-relief gratings from azobenzene-containing polyferrocenylsilane block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.24,926–931 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aida, T.

D. L. Jiang and T. Aida, “Photoisomerization in dendrimers by harvesting of low-energy photons,” Nature388,5–7 (1997).

Akelaitis, A. J.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33,1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, T. Alasaarela, J.-I. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem.21,15437–15441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alcalá, R.

S. Hernández-Ainsa, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, M. Marcos, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Ionic photoresponsive azo-codendrimer with room temperature mesomorphism and high photoinduced optical anisotropy,” Macromolecules43,2660–2663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Marcos, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, P. Romero, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Photosensitive ionic nematic liquid crystalline complexes based on dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers and a cyanoazobenzene carboxylic acid,” Chem. Mater.20,5209–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosio, A.

A. Ambrosio, L. Marrucci, F. Brbone, A. Roviello, and P. Maddalena, “Light-induced spiral mass transport in azo-polymer films under vortex-beam illumination,” Nat. Commun.3,989 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ando, H.

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, T. Takahashi, H. Ando, and Y. Shirota, “Relationship between molecular structure and photoinduced surface relief grating formation using azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials,” J. Mater. Chem.18,242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Archut, A.

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astruc, D.

D. Astruc, E. Boisselier, and C. Ornelas, “Dendrimers designed for functions: from physical, photophysical, and supramolecular properties to applications in sensing, catalysis, molecular electronics, photonics, and nanomedicine,” Chem. Rev.110,1857–1959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzellini, G. C.

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balzani, V.

F. Puntoriero, P. Ceroni, V. Balzani, G. Bergamini, and F. Vögtle, “Photoswitchable dendritic hosts: a dendrimer with peripheral azobenzene groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129,10714–10719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ceroni, G. Bergamini, F. Marchioni, and V. Balzani, “Luminescence as a tool to investigate dendrimer properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.30,453–473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barberá, J.

S. Hernández-Ainsa, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, M. Marcos, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Ionic photoresponsive azo-codendrimer with room temperature mesomorphism and high photoinduced optical anisotropy,” Macromolecules43,2660–2663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Marcos, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, P. Romero, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Photosensitive ionic nematic liquid crystalline complexes based on dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers and a cyanoazobenzene carboxylic acid,” Chem. Mater.20,5209–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. J.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys.109,1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem.100,8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Polarization dependence of holographic grating recording in azobenzene-functionalized polymers monitored by visible and infrared light,” J. Phys. Chem. B114,9751–9760 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazuin, C. G.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergamini, G.

F. Puntoriero, P. Ceroni, V. Balzani, G. Bergamini, and F. Vögtle, “Photoswitchable dendritic hosts: a dendrimer with peripheral azobenzene groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129,10714–10719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ceroni, G. Bergamini, F. Marchioni, and V. Balzani, “Luminescence as a tool to investigate dendrimer properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.30,453–473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9,1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boisselier, E.

D. Astruc, E. Boisselier, and C. Ornelas, “Dendrimers designed for functions: from physical, photophysical, and supramolecular properties to applications in sensing, catalysis, molecular electronics, photonics, and nanomedicine,” Chem. Rev.110,1857–1959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolisetty, S.

N. Merlet-Lacroix, J. Rao, A. Zhang, A. D. Schlüter, S. Bolisetty, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Controlling hierarchical self-assembly in supramolecular tailed-dendron systems,” Macromolecules43,4752–4760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Börger, V.

K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, O. Kulikovska, V. Börger, H. Menzel, and J. Stumpe, “Surface relief gratings in azobenzene-containing polymers with linear and star-branched architectures: a comparison,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210,1809–1817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Börger, H. Menzel, and M. R. Huber, “Influence of the molecular weight of azopolymers on the photo-induced formation of surface relief gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.430,89–97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brbone, F.

A. Ambrosio, L. Marrucci, F. Brbone, A. Roviello, and P. Maddalena, “Light-induced spiral mass transport in azo-polymer films under vortex-beam illumination,” Nat. Commun.3,989 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buffeteau, T.

F. Lagugné Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, “Azopolymer holographic diffraction gratings: time dependent analyses of the diffraction efficiency, birefringence, and surface modulation induced by two linearly polarized interfering beams,” J. Phys. Chem. B103,6690–6699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caminade, A.-M.

R. Deloncle and A.-M. Caminade, “Stimuli-responsive dendritic structures: the case of light-driven azobenzene-containing dendrimers and dendrons,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. C11,25–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canilho, N.

R. Mezzenga, J. Ruokolainen, N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, W. B. Lee, and G. H. Fredrickson, “Frustrated self-assembly of dendron and dendrimer-based supramolecular liquid crystals,” Soft Matter5,92–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Functional columnar liquid crystalline phases from ionic complexes of dendronized polymers and sulfate alkyl tails,” Macromol. Symp.270,58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Real space imaging and molecular packing of dendronized polymer-lipid supramolecular complexes,” Macromolecules40,7609–7616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, and R. Mezzenga, “Comblike liquid-crystalline polymers from ionic complexation of dendronized polymers and lipids,” Macromolecules40,2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, R. Mezzenga, and A. D. Schlüter, “Liquid-crystalline polymers from cationic dendronized polymer-anionic lipid complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128,13998–13999 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavallo, G.

A. Priimagi, M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, and G. Resnati, “Photoalignment and Surface-relief-grating formation are efficiently combined in low-molecular-weight halogen-bonded complexes,” Adv. Mater.24,OP345–OP352 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ceroni, P.

F. Puntoriero, P. Ceroni, V. Balzani, G. Bergamini, and F. Vögtle, “Photoswitchable dendritic hosts: a dendrimer with peripheral azobenzene groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129,10714–10719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ceroni, G. Bergamini, F. Marchioni, and V. Balzani, “Luminescence as a tool to investigate dendrimer properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.30,453–473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. J.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33,1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. H.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33,1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cholli, A. L.

S. Yang, L. Li, A. L. Cholli, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface relief gratings on azocellulose films,” J. Macromol. Sci. A38,1345–1354 (2001).

Clark, T.

P. Politzer, J. S. Murray, and T. Clark, “Halogen bonding: an electrostatically-driven highly directional noncovalent interaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12,7748–7757 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33,1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Cola, L.

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deloncle, R.

R. Deloncle and A.-M. Caminade, “Stimuli-responsive dendritic structures: the case of light-driven azobenzene-containing dendrimers and dendrons,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. C11,25–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, S.

S. Wu, S. Duan, Z. Lei, W. Su, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Supramolecular bisazopolymers exhibiting enhanced photoinduced birefringence and enhanced stability of birefringence for four-dimensional optical recording,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5202–5209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faul, C. F. J.

R. Ahmed, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, and I. Manners, “Redox-active, organometallic surface-relief gratings from azobenzene-containing polyferrocenylsilane block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.24,926–931 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, J Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20,6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of the photo-induced translation diffusion of azobenzene dyes in polymer matrices,” Pure Appl. Opt.7,71–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forni, A.

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fredrickson, G. H.

R. Mezzenga, J. Ruokolainen, N. Canilho, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, W. B. Lee, and G. H. Fredrickson, “Frustrated self-assembly of dendron and dendrimer-based supramolecular liquid crystals,” Soft Matter5,92–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gharagozloo-Hubmann, K.

K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, O. Kulikovska, V. Börger, H. Menzel, and J. Stumpe, “Surface relief gratings in azobenzene-containing polymers with linear and star-branched architectures: a comparison,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210,1809–1817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, L. M.

L. M. Goldenberg, V. Lisinetskii, Y. Gritsai, J. Stumpe, and S. Schrader, “Second order DFB lasing using reusable grating inscribed in azobenzene-containing material,” Opt. Mater. Express2,11–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Tomczyk, and J. Stumpe, “Thin layers of low molecular azobenzene materials with effective light-induced mass transport,” Langmuir26,2214–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular azobenzene-based materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.19,3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorynsztejn–Leben, M.

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gritsai, Y.

Hammond, M. R.

M. R. Hammond and R. Mezzenga, “Supramolecular routes towards liquid crystalline side-chain polymers,” Soft Matter4,952–961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heino, M. T.

A. Priimagi, J Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20,6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Ainsa, S.

S. Hernández-Ainsa, R. Alcalá, J. Barberá, M. Marcos, C. Sánchez, and J. L. Serrano, “Ionic photoresponsive azo-codendrimer with room temperature mesomorphism and high photoinduced optical anisotropy,” Macromolecules43,2660–2663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C.

T. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80,89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M. R.

V. Börger, H. Menzel, and M. R. Huber, “Influence of the molecular weight of azopolymers on the photo-induced formation of surface relief gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.430,89–97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

T. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80,89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikkala, O.

A. J. Soininen, E. Kasëmi, A. D. Schlüter, O. Ikkala, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Self-assembly and induced circular dichroism in dendritic supramolecules with cholesteric pendant groups,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132,10882–10890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, J Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20,6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imam, M. R.

B. M. Rosen, C. J. Wilson, D. A. Wilson, M Peterca, M. R. Imam, and V. Percec, “Dendron-mediated self-assembly, disassembly, and self-organization of complex systems,” Chem. Rev.109,6275–6540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K. Y.

H. Ma and A. K. Y. Jen, “Functional dendrimers for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.13,1201–1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D. L.

D. L. Jiang and T. Aida, “Photoisomerization in dendrimers by harvesting of low-energy photons,” Nature388,5–7 (1997).

Jiang, X. L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D.-Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72,2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, P. M.

T. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80,89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juan, M. L.

M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaivola, M.

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Kravchenko, A. Shevchenko, V. Ovchinnikov, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Optical interference lithography using azobenzene-functionalized polymers for micro- and nanopatterning of silicon,” Adv. Mater.23,4174–4177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, T. Alasaarela, J.-I. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem.21,15437–15441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vapaavuori, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Photoinduced surface-relief gratings in films of supramolecular polymer–bisazobenzene complexes,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5260–5264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1,1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20,6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater.24,2069–2103 (2012).
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A. Kravchenko, A. Shevchenko, V. Ovchinnikov, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Optical interference lithography using azobenzene-functionalized polymers for micro- and nanopatterning of silicon,” Adv. Mater.23,4174–4177 (2011).
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A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
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Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
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J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
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J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
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M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
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N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9,1941–1955 (1999).
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S. Wu, S. Duan, Z. Lei, W. Su, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Supramolecular bisazopolymers exhibiting enhanced photoinduced birefringence and enhanced stability of birefringence for four-dimensional optical recording,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5202–5209 (2010).
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S. Yang, L. Li, A. L. Cholli, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface relief gratings on azocellulose films,” J. Macromol. Sci. A38,1345–1354 (2001).

Zettsu, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene unit,” Adv. Mater.20,516–521 (2008).
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Zhang, A.

N. Merlet-Lacroix, J. Rao, A. Zhang, A. D. Schlüter, S. Bolisetty, J. Ruokolainen, and R. Mezzenga, “Controlling hierarchical self-assembly in supramolecular tailed-dendron systems,” Macromolecules43,4752–4760 (2010).
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Zhang, Q.

S. Wu, S. Duan, Z. Lei, W. Su, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Supramolecular bisazopolymers exhibiting enhanced photoinduced birefringence and enhanced stability of birefringence for four-dimensional optical recording,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5202–5209 (2010).
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Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
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Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
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Zhang, X.

J. Gao, Y. He, F. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Wang, “Azobenzene-containing supramolecular side-chain polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings,” Chem. Mater.19,3877–3881 (2007).
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Zhang, Z.

S. Wu, S. Duan, Z. Lei, W. Su, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Supramolecular bisazopolymers exhibiting enhanced photoinduced birefringence and enhanced stability of birefringence for four-dimensional optical recording,” J. Mater. Chem.20,5202–5209 (2010).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1,1183–1189 (2009).
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ACS Nano

M. L. Juan, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers,” ACS Nano3,1573–1579 (2009).
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Adv. Funct. Mater.

A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn–Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22,2572–2579 (2012).
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Adv. Mater.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene unit,” Adv. Mater.20,516–521 (2008).
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S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater.24,2069–2103 (2012).
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A. Kravchenko, A. Shevchenko, V. Ovchinnikov, A. Priimagi, and M. Kaivola, “Optical interference lithography using azobenzene-functionalized polymers for micro- and nanopatterning of silicon,” Adv. Mater.23,4174–4177 (2011).
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R. Ahmed, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, and I. Manners, “Redox-active, organometallic surface-relief gratings from azobenzene-containing polyferrocenylsilane block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.24,926–931 (2012).
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C. Li, A. D. Schlüter, A. Zhang, and R. Mezzenga, “A new level of hierarchical structure control by use of supramolecular self-assembled dendronized block copolymers,” Adv. Mater.20,4530–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, and G. Resnati, “Photoalignment and Surface-relief-grating formation are efficiently combined in low-molecular-weight halogen-bonded complexes,” Adv. Mater.24,OP345–OP352 (2012).
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H. Ma and A. K. Y. Jen, “Functional dendrimers for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.13,1201–1205 (2001).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

P. Metrangolo, F. Meyer, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, and G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding in supramolecular chemistry,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.47,6114–6127 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D.-Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72,2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eur. J.

A. Archut, F. Vögtle, L. De Cola, G. C. Azzellini, V. Balzani, P. S. Ramanujam, and R. H. Berg, “Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules: photoswitchable supramolecular systems,” Chem. Eur. J.1,699–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, “Supramolecular azobenzene-based materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.19,3343–3348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, C. J. Barrett, and C. G. Bazuin, “Spacer-free ionic dyepolyelectrolyte complexes: influence of molecular structure on liquid crystal order and photoinduced motion,” Chem. Mater.21,3216–3227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, “Simple spacer-free dye-polyelectrolyte ionic complex: side-chain liquid crystal order with high and stable photoinduced birefringence,” Chem. Mater.20,29–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Chem. Rev.

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J. Mater. Chem.

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J. Phys. Chem.

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Langmuir

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Macromol. Symp.

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Macromolecules

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of the dendrons (DDx), dendrimers (DMx), dendronized polymers (DPx); EO denotes the Ethyl Orange pendant groups. Only the third-generation molecules are entirely drawn. The corresponding first and second generations (excluding ammonium charges) are highlighted in black and purple, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chemical structure of Ethyl Orange (EO).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SAXS intensity curves of (a) dendron–EO, (b) dendrimer–EO and (c) dendronized polymer–EO complexes and (d) of pure EO as a reference. The curves have been vertically shifted for the sake of clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The normalized absorption spectra for (a) DDx-EO, (b) DMx-EO, and (c) DPx-EO. The absorption maxima for the complexes are given in the figure legends.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The first-order diffraction efficiencies for (a) DDx-EO, (b) DMx-EO, and (c) DPx-EO. To facilitate a comparison between the complexes, the same y-axis scale is used for all the graphs. All the inscriptions were performed using a p-polarized inscription beam (457 nm, 50 mW/cm2) and a period of ca. 1 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a): Surface profiles of the gratings recorded on the dendrimer complexes. The curves are offset in the y-direction for the sake of clarity. The modulation depths for samples written until the diffraction efficiency has saturated are ca. 330 nm (DM1-EO), 550 nm (DM2-EO), and 420 nm (DM3-EO). (b): 3D AFM view of an SRG on the DM2-EO complex.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Weights of the Dendritic Hosts, Numbers of Their Peripheral Units Used for Supramolecular Complex Formation with EO, and the Nominal EO Weight Fraction Within the Complexes

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