Abstract

Thin films of GeAsS glass are prepared by e-beam evaporation technique. Photoinduced birefringence (PIB) is studied as function of the As content with concentrations ranging from 10% to 40%. Raman spectroscopy is used as additional tool to explain the corresponding changes undergone by the material system. The breakdown of homopolar bonds is suggested as a possible mechanism of photo induced structural changes leading to the creation of the PIB.

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).
  2. K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.8, 2058–2065 (2006).
  3. Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids44, 475–588 (1995).
  5. T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids130(2), 111–143 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 673–676 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.20(12), 506–508 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci.29(2), 468–472 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 757–760 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(10), 104202 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Feltz, Amorphous Inorganic Materials and Glasses (Wiley-VCH, 1993).

2011

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

2009

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.8, 2058–2065 (2006).

2003

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(10), 104202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids44, 475–588 (1995).

1994

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci.29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, B. G.

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(10), 104202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arsova, D.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bradaczek, H.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Neufville, J. P.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dinev, B.

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci.29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids44, 475–588 (1995).

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ewen, P. J. S.

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geils, R. H.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, L. F.

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grasselli, R. K.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Greaves, G. N.

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Grothaus, J.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hazle, M. A.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Igo, T.

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keezer, R. C.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, P. J.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids44, 475–588 (1995).

Kotsalas, I. P.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ledemi, Y.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lorinczi, A.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Lyubin, V.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, S. H.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min Yoon, J.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ohmachi, Y.

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Owen, A. E.

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pamukchieva, V.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Papadimitriou, D.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, K.

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci.29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ponader, C. W.

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(10), 104202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, M.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raptis, C.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, S.-Y.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, A.

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.8, 2058–2065 (2006).

Sava, F.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sen, S.

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[CrossRef]

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G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci.29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
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P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
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[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids44, 475–588 (1995).

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.8, 2058–2065 (2006).

Nat. Photonics

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Phys. Rev. B

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(10), 104202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Feltz, Amorphous Inorganic Materials and Glasses (Wiley-VCH, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transmission spectra of obtained thin ChG films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficients of the Ge25As30S45 as function of probe’s energy obtained for photoexposition intensity of 8W/cm2 for 60 min. The solid curve corresponds to the unexposed case; the dashed curve corresponds to the photoexposed case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The experimental setup used for the study of PIB: P-polarizer, M–mirror, λ/2- half wave plate, S-sample; A-analyzer; F1 and F2-filters, d-diaphragm, D-detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical cycle of excitation and partial relaxation of the PIB in the Ge25As30S45 film. The solid curve shows the experimental result and the dashed one (behind the experimental curve) represents the fitted curve. The thickness of the film was 1.5 µm and the excitation intensity was 8W/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the PIB upon the amount of As in the film of GeAsS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The dependence of the established (saturated) value of PIB upon the excitation intensity for the composition Ge25As30S45.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized Raman spectra of thin Ge-As-S films for different compositions: Ge25As10S65 (dotted black line), Ge25As20S55 (short dash dotted red line), Ge25As30S45 (dashed green line), Ge25As35S40 (short dotted blue line), Ge25As40S35 (solid cyan line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized Raman spectra of Ge25As30S45 bulk glass (dotted black line) and thin films unexposed (short dash dotted red line) and exposed at 2.14 W/cm2 (dashed green line), 4.24 W/cm2 (short dotted blue line) and 7.87 W/cm2 (solid cyan line) for 60 min.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Analyses of the Composition Ge25As30S45a

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