Abstract

Thin films of GeAsS glass are prepared by e-beam evaporation technique. Photoinduced birefringence (PIB) is studied as function of the As content with concentrations ranging from 10% to 40%. Raman spectroscopy is used as additional tool to explain the corresponding changes undergone by the material system. The breakdown of homopolar bonds is suggested as a possible mechanism of photo induced structural changes leading to the creation of the PIB.

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
  2. K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).
  3. Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).
  5. T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 673–676 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(12), 506–508 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 757–760 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Feltz, Amorphous Inorganic Materials and Glasses (Wiley-VCH, 1993).

2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

2009 (1)

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).

2003 (2)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (5)

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aitken, B. G.

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arsova, D.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bradaczek, H.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Neufville, J. P.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Dinev, B.

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ewen, P. J. S.

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[Crossref]

Frumar, M.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Galeener, F. L.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geils, R. H.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

Gladden, L. F.

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[Crossref]

Grasselli, R. K.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

Greaves, G. N.

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[Crossref]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Grothaus, J.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hazle, M. A.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Igo, T.

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ishida, K.

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jain, H.

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

Keezer, R. C.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

Klebanov, M.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koch, P. J.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).

Kotsalas, I. P.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ledemi, Y.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lorinczi, A.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Lyubin, V.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, S. H.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min Yoon, J.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ohmachi, Y.

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Owen, A. E.

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[Crossref]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pamukchieva, V.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Papadimitriou, D.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petkov, K.

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ponader, C. W.

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[Crossref]

Popescu, M.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

Raptis, C.

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ryou, S.-Y.

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, A.

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).

Sava, F.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sen, S.

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).

Six, H. A.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

Skhripachev, I.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skordeva, E.

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ston, R.

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Tenhover, M.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

Terakado, N.

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).

Vancu, A.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Vateva, E.

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Viens, J. F.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vlcek, M.

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Ohmachi and T. Igo, “Laser-induced refractive-index change in As-S-Ge glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(12), 506–508 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1343–1347 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photo-induced changes in the optical properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (14)

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amourphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13(2), 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J. Min Yoon, and S.-Y. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2-Ca2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1-2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. J. S. Ewen and A. E. Owen, “Resonance Raman-scattering in As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1191–1196 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As-Ge-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Popescu, F. Sava, A. Lorinczi, E. Skordeva, P. J. Koch, and H. Bradaczek, “Photo-induced softening and hardening in Ge-As-S amorphous films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 719–722 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. F. Gladden, S. R. Elliott, and G. N. Greaves, “Photostructural changes in bulk chalcogenide glasses—an EXAFS study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106(1-3), 189–192 (1988).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kotsalas, D. Papadimitriou, C. Raptis, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Raman study of photostructural changes in amorphous GexSb0.4S0.6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 226(1-2), 85–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amourphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Photoinduced anisotropic structure in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 673–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. G. Aitken and C. W. Ponader, “Property extrema in GeAs sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 124–130 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 475–588 (1995).

K. Tanaka and M. Yamaguchi, “Resonant Raman scattering in GeS2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 757–760 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Tanaka, A. Saitoh, and N. Terakado, “Giant photo-expansion in chalcogenide glass,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2058–2065 (2006).

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, “Structural interpretation of infrared and Raman-spectra of glasses in alloy system GE1-xSx,” Phys. Rev. B 10(12), 5134–5146 (1974).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[Crossref]

S. Sen, C. W. Ponader, and B. G. Aitken, “Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(10), 104202 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, D. Arsova, E. Vateva, and V. Pamukchieva, “Photoinduced anisotropy in photobleached Ge-As-S films,” Physica B 301(3-4), 399–404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Feltz, Amorphous Inorganic Materials and Glasses (Wiley-VCH, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transmission spectra of obtained thin ChG films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficients of the Ge25As30S45 as function of probe’s energy obtained for photoexposition intensity of 8W/cm2 for 60 min. The solid curve corresponds to the unexposed case; the dashed curve corresponds to the photoexposed case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The experimental setup used for the study of PIB: P-polarizer, M–mirror, λ/2- half wave plate, S-sample; A-analyzer; F1 and F2-filters, d-diaphragm, D-detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical cycle of excitation and partial relaxation of the PIB in the Ge25As30S45 film. The solid curve shows the experimental result and the dashed one (behind the experimental curve) represents the fitted curve. The thickness of the film was 1.5 µm and the excitation intensity was 8W/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the PIB upon the amount of As in the film of GeAsS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The dependence of the established (saturated) value of PIB upon the excitation intensity for the composition Ge25As30S45.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized Raman spectra of thin Ge-As-S films for different compositions: Ge25As10S65 (dotted black line), Ge25As20S55 (short dash dotted red line), Ge25As30S45 (dashed green line), Ge25As35S40 (short dotted blue line), Ge25As40S35 (solid cyan line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized Raman spectra of Ge25As30S45 bulk glass (dotted black line) and thin films unexposed (short dash dotted red line) and exposed at 2.14 W/cm2 (dashed green line), 4.24 W/cm2 (short dotted blue line) and 7.87 W/cm2 (solid cyan line) for 60 min.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material Analyses of the Composition Ge25As30S45a

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