Abstract

A tunable red photoluminescence from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers was modulated in the wavelength range of 800–640 nm by controlling the thickness of the a-Si:H sublayer from 4 to 1.5 nm. Subsequent annealing was used to improve red photoluminescence without recrystallization of the amorphous silicon sublayers. The significant enhancement of red emission was found to depend on the decomposition of the Si–H bond in a-Si:H sublayers. Based on the absorption measurement, Raman, and FTIR spectra, the origin of light emission is ascribed to the silicon dangling bonds associated with hydrogen in a-Si:H sublayers, and the mechanism of light emission is suggested from the radiative recombination between the electrons existing at the negatively charged levels of silicon dangling bond and holes at the valence band.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (4)

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

G. G. Qin, G. Z. Ran, K. Sun, and H. J. Xu, “Light emission from nanoscale Si/Si oxide materials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(3), 1584–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, I. Perez-Wurfl, and G. Conibeer, “The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures,” J. Cryst. Growth310(15), 3680–3684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, and C. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nanopillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wei, G. Y. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. M. Wang, “Raman spectra of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films,” Vacuum81(5), 656–662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Molinari, H. Rinnert, and M. Vergnat, “Evolution with the annealing treatments of the photoluminescence mechanisms in a-SiNx:H alloys prepared by reactive evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, C. Lin, and H. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal-based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Singh, “Effective mass of charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors and its applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302(1), 444–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. L. C. Vink, G. T. Barkema, and W. F. van der Weg, “Raman spectra and structure of amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B63(11), 115210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Hasegawa, L. He, Y. Amano, and T. Inokuma, “Analysis of SiH and SiN vibrational absorption in amorphous SiNx:H films in terms of a charge-transfer model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(8), 5315–5325 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. Vaillant and D. Jousse, “Recombination at dangling bonds and steady-state photoconductivity in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter34(6), 4088–4098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, Y.

S. Hasegawa, L. He, Y. Amano, and T. Inokuma, “Analysis of SiH and SiN vibrational absorption in amorphous SiNx:H films in terms of a charge-transfer model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(8), 5315–5325 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkema, G. T.

R. L. C. Vink, G. T. Barkema, and W. F. van der Weg, “Raman spectra and structure of amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B63(11), 115210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S. N.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bläsing, J.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bugaev, K. O.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carter-Coman, C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. W. F.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. I.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. R.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. J.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. S.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. J.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. K.

Chui, H. C.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conibeer, G.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, I. Perez-Wurfl, and G. Conibeer, “The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures,” J. Cryst. Growth310(15), 3680–3684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekkers, H. F. W.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Fedina, L. I.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. Q.

Gutakovsky, A. K.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hao, H. L.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, S.

S. Hasegawa, L. He, Y. Amano, and T. Inokuma, “Analysis of SiH and SiN vibrational absorption in amorphous SiNx:H films in terms of a charge-transfer model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(8), 5315–5325 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, L.

S. Hasegawa, L. He, Y. Amano, and T. Inokuma, “Analysis of SiH and SiN vibrational absorption in amorphous SiNx:H films in terms of a charge-transfer model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(8), 5315–5325 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitmann, J.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. W.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R.

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. F.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hueschen, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inokuma, T.

S. Hasegawa, L. He, Y. Amano, and T. Inokuma, “Analysis of SiH and SiN vibrational absorption in amorphous SiNx:H films in terms of a charge-transfer model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(8), 5315–5325 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jousse, D.

F. Vaillant and D. Jousse, “Recombination at dangling bonds and steady-state photoconductivity in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter34(6), 4088–4098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahler, U.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. Y.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kish, F. A.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kocot, C. P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.

G. Lin, C. Lin, and H. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal-based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Latyshev, A. V.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, and C. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nanopillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, C. Lin, and H. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal-based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, and C. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nanopillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, C. Lin, and H. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal-based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, G.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, B.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. Y.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, J.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Misiuk, A.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, M.

M. Molinari, H. Rinnert, and M. Vergnat, “Evolution with the annealing treatments of the photoluminescence mechanisms in a-SiNx:H alloys prepared by reactive evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, A.

A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Neklyudova, M. A.

V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ochiai-Holcomb, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, and C. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nanopillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y. H.

Park, N. M.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
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N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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Perez-Wurfl, I.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, I. Perez-Wurfl, and G. Conibeer, “The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures,” J. Cryst. Growth310(15), 3680–3684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Posselt, J.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puzzer, T.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, I. Perez-Wurfl, and G. Conibeer, “The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures,” J. Cryst. Growth310(15), 3680–3684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, F.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. G.

G. G. Qin, G. Z. Ran, K. Sun, and H. J. Xu, “Light emission from nanoscale Si/Si oxide materials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(3), 1584–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Que, D.

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ran, G. Z.

G. G. Qin, G. Z. Ran, K. Sun, and H. J. Xu, “Light emission from nanoscale Si/Si oxide materials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(3), 1584–1595 (2010).
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Rinnert, H.

M. Molinari, H. Rinnert, and M. Vergnat, “Evolution with the annealing treatments of the photoluminescence mechanisms in a-SiNx:H alloys prepared by reactive evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasser, G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scardera, G.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, I. Perez-Wurfl, and G. Conibeer, “The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures,” J. Cryst. Growth310(15), 3680–3684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
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Scholz, R.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, W. Z.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
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X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 692–694 (2012).
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Speck, J. S.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
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Stockman, S. A.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, Y.

A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sukhovatkin, V.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. C.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

G. G. Qin, G. Z. Ran, K. Sun, and H. J. Xu, “Light emission from nanoscale Si/Si oxide materials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(3), 1584–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, G. Y.

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, I. H.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T. S.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. K.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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Tayo, B.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
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A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
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Vergnat, M.

M. Molinari, H. Rinnert, and M. Vergnat, “Evolution with the annealing treatments of the photoluminescence mechanisms in a-SiNx:H alloys prepared by reactive evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vink, R. L. C.

R. L. C. Vink, G. T. Barkema, and W. F. van der Weg, “Raman spectra and structure of amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B63(11), 115210 (2001).
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V. A. Volodin, K. O. Bugaev, A. K. Gutakovsky, L. I. Fedina, M. A. Neklyudova, A. V. Latyshev, and A. Misiuk, “Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing,” Thin Solid Films520(19), 6207–6214 (2012).
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Wang, J. L.

W. S. Wei, G. Y. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. M. Wang, “Raman spectra of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films,” Vacuum81(5), 656–662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. M.

W. S. Wei, G. Y. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. M. Wang, “Raman spectra of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films,” Vacuum81(5), 656–662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W. S.

W. S. Wei, G. Y. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. M. Wang, “Raman spectra of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films,” Vacuum81(5), 656–662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

Wu, L. K.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

Xu, G. Y.

W. S. Wei, G. Y. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. M. Wang, “Raman spectra of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films,” Vacuum81(5), 656–662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. J.

G. G. Qin, G. Z. Ran, K. Sun, and H. J. Xu, “Light emission from nanoscale Si/Si oxide materials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(3), 1584–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

C. Song, G. R. Chen, J. Xu, T. Wang, H. C. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Y. Ma, L. Xu, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Evaluation of microstructures and carrier transport behaviors during the transition process from amorphous to nanocrystalline silicon thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 054901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, N.

A. Nakajima, Y. Sugita, K. Kawamura, H. Tomita, and N. Yokoyama, “Microstructure and optical absorption properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated with low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.80(7), 4006–4011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

W. K. Tan, M. B. Yu, Q. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Red light emission from controlled multilayer stack comprising of thin amorphous silicon and silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 221103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zheng, Z. H.

Zhu, D.

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 Å) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(15), 2230–2232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, C. Lin, and H. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal-based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Cho, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ma, K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, W. Li, D. Zhu, J. Mei, F. Qiao, and D. Feng, “Strong blue photoluminescence from as-fabricated amorphous-Si:H/SiO2 multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, “Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, “Light emission efficiency and dynamics in silicon-rich silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Zacharias, J. Heitmann, R. Scholz, U. Kahler, M. Schmidt, and J. Bläsing, “Size-controlled highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals: a SiO/SiO2 superlattice approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(4), 661–663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section TEM image of a-Si/SiNx multilayers with initial 4 nm a-Si:H and 4 nm a-SiNx.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PL spectra of as-deposited a-Si/SiNx multilayers with different thickness of a-Si:H sublayer from 4 nm to 1.5 nm. (b) The a-Si:H sublayer thickness dependence of experimental optical band gap, theoretical band gap, experimental PL peak energy and theoretical emission band energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectra a-Si:H/SiNx multilayers with 2 nm a-Si:H sublayer annealed at different temperature. (b) Temperature dependence of experimental optical band gap, experimental PL peak energy and theoretical emission band energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Raman spectra of the a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers with 2 nm a-Si:H sublayer annealed at different temperature. (b) Values of ITA/ITO as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FTIR spectra of the a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers with 2 nm a-Si:H sublayer before and after thermal annealing. Inset gives the Si–H bond density as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic energy band diagram of the a-Si:H film. The defect state of silicon dangling bond and the exciton recombination processes are illustrated in the diagram.

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