Abstract

We demonstrate the ability to pull small diameter silicon-core fibers with low oxygen content by using interface modifiers between the silica cladding and the semiconductor. Alkali earths scavenge oxygen and form a fine-structured eutectic that accommodates thermal strain and may be useful as an intermediate index cladding layer for optical applications. NaO, MgO, SrO, CaO and BaO interface modifiers were tested. CaO coated fibers were made with core diameters down to 10 microns, small bending radii, low oxygen incorporation, and optical losses below 4 dB/cm at 1.55 microns.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. D. Himel and U. J. Gibson, “Measurement of planar waveguide losses using a coherent fiber bundle,” Appl. Opt.25(23), 4413–4416 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. J. Eraker and U. J. Gibson (Dept. of Physics, Norwegian Univ. of Sci. and Technol., 7491 Trondheim, Norway) are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical loss measurements in silicon fibers”.

2013

F. A. Martinsen, E. F. Nordstrand, and U. J. Gibson, “Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure,” J. Cryst. Growth363, 33–39 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Bei, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Fabrication of extruded fluoroindate optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express3(3), 318–328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Hudson, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On loss in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express2(11), 1511–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. He, S. Zheng, and C. Chen, “The effect of calcium oxide addition on the removal of metal impurities from metallurgical-grade silicon by acid leaching,” Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.43(5), 1011–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Saad, “Indium fluoride glass fibers,” Proc. SPIE8275, 82750D, 82750D–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Peacock and N. Healy, “Parabolic pulse generation in tapered silicon fibers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1780–1782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Scott, K. Wang, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of n-type silicon optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1798–1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Wilm and G. Frischat, “Coating and diffusion studies to improve the performance of silica glass crucibles for the preparation of semiconducting silicon single crystals,” Glass Technol. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A47(1), 7–14 (2006).

2005

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Schnurre and R. Schmid-Fetzer, “Reactions at the liquid silicon/silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth250(3-4), 370–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

Arnberg, L.

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakken, A.

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bale, C. W.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bei, J.

Ben Mahfoud, R.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brynjulfsen, I.

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, J.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caluori, V.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chartrand, P.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

F. He, S. Zheng, and C. Chen, “The effect of calcium oxide addition on the removal of metal impurities from metallurgical-grade silicon by acid leaching,” Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.43(5), 1011–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cröll, A.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Ramírez, A.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daw, M.

Degterov, S. A.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Ellison, M.

Eriksson, G.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

Foy, P.

Frischat, G.

K. Wilm and G. Frischat, “Coating and diffusion studies to improve the performance of silica glass crucibles for the preparation of semiconducting silicon single crystals,” Glass Technol. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A47(1), 7–14 (2006).

Gibson, U. J.

F. A. Martinsen, E. F. Nordstrand, and U. J. Gibson, “Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure,” J. Cryst. Growth363, 33–39 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Himel and U. J. Gibson, “Measurement of planar waveguide losses using a coherent fiber bundle,” Appl. Opt.25(23), 4413–4416 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, V.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hack, K.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hallen-López, M.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, T.

He, F.

F. He, S. Zheng, and C. Chen, “The effect of calcium oxide addition on the removal of metal impurities from metallurgical-grade silicon by acid leaching,” Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.43(5), 1011–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Healy, N.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Peacock and N. Healy, “Parabolic pulse generation in tapered silicon fibers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1780–1782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemming, A.

Hernández-Pérez, M. Á.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higasa, M.

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Himel, M. D.

Holmes, M. R.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hon, N. K.

Hoshikawa, K.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoshikawa, T.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, J.

Jalali, B.

Jenkins, M. H.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kashima, K.

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitanov, S.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koh, S.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokuoz, B.

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lantzsch, R.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, S.

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martinsen, F. A.

F. A. Martinsen, E. F. Nordstrand, and U. J. Gibson, “Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure,” J. Cryst. Growth363, 33–39 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

Melançon, J.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Morris, S.

Nordstrand, E. F.

F. A. Martinsen, E. F. Nordstrand, and U. J. Gibson, “Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure,” J. Cryst. Growth363, 33–39 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

Peacock, A. C.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, A. D.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, S.

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, B. S.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickrell, G.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Scott, K. Wang, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of n-type silicon optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1798–1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Powers, D. R.

Ramirez, M. O.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R.

Rice, R. R.

Romero, D.

D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. M. F.

D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Serrano, A.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romo-Castañeda, J.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saad, M.

M. Saad, “Indium fluoride glass fibers,” Proc. SPIE8275, 82750D, 82750D–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salk, N.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J. A.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmid-Fetzer, R.

S. M. Schnurre and R. Schmid-Fetzer, “Reactions at the liquid silicon/silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth250(3-4), 370–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnurre, S. M.

S. M. Schnurre and R. Schmid-Fetzer, “Reactions at the liquid silicon/silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth250(3-4), 370–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. L.

B. L. Scott, K. Wang, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of n-type silicon optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1798–1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. R.

Shori, R.

Sparks, J. R.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Szofran, F. R.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tangstad, M.

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tegetmeier, A.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uda, S.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Ramírez, M.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

B. L. Scott, K. Wang, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of n-type silicon optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1798–1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilm, K.

K. Wilm and G. Frischat, “Coating and diffusion studies to improve the performance of silica glass crucibles for the preparation of semiconducting silicon single crystals,” Glass Technol. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A47(1), 7–14 (2006).

Won, D.-J.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, S.

F. He, S. Zheng, and C. Chen, “The effect of calcium oxide addition on the removal of metal impurities from metallurgical-grade silicon by acid leaching,” Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.43(5), 1011–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calphad

C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, “FactSage thermochemical software and database,” Calphad26(2), 189–228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

A. Cröll, R. Lantzsch, S. Kitanov, N. Salk, F. R. Szofran, and A. Tegetmeier, “Melt-crucible wetting behavior in semiconductor melt growth systems,” Cryst. Res. Technol.38(78), 669–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glass Technol. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A

K. Wilm and G. Frischat, “Coating and diffusion studies to improve the performance of silica glass crucibles for the preparation of semiconducting silicon single crystals,” Glass Technol. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A47(1), 7–14 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. L. Scott, K. Wang, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of n-type silicon optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1798–1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom.

D. Romero, J. M. F. Romero, and J. J. Romero, “Distribution of metal impurities in silicon wafers using imaging-mode multi-elemental laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.14(2), 199–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

X. Huang, S. Koh, K. Wu, M. Chen, T. Hoshikawa, K. Hoshikawa, and S. Uda, “Reaction at the interface between Si melt and a Ba-doped silica crucible,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 154–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Minami, S. Maeda, M. Higasa, and K. Kashima, “In-situ observation of bubble formation at silicon melt–silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth318(1), 196–199 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Schnurre and R. Schmid-Fetzer, “Reactions at the liquid silicon/silica glass interface,” J. Cryst. Growth250(3-4), 370–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Brynjulfsen, A. Bakken, M. Tangstad, and L. Arnberg, “Influence of oxidation on the wetting behavior of liquid silicon on Si3N4-coated substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth312(16-17), 2404–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Martinsen, E. F. Nordstrand, and U. J. Gibson, “Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure,” J. Cryst. Growth363, 33–39 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluor. Chem.

A. Cruz-Ramírez, J. Romo-Castañeda, M. Á. Hernández-Pérez, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Romero-Serrano, and M. Hallen-López, “An application of infrared analysis to determine the mineralogical phases formation in fluxes for thin slab casting of steel,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(5), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.

F. He, S. Zheng, and C. Chen, “The effect of calcium oxide addition on the removal of metal impurities from metallurgical-grade silicon by acid leaching,” Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci.43(5), 1011–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. H. Jenkins, B. S. Phillips, Y. Zhao, M. R. Holmes, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Optical characterization of optofluidic waveguides using scattered light imaging,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3980–3982 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Proc. SPIE

M. Saad, “Indium fluoride glass fibers,” Proc. SPIE8275, 82750D, 82750D–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

Lambda-Photometrics, “Model2010” http://www.lambdaphoto.co.uk/products/150.110.100.007 (2013).

A. J. Eraker and U. J. Gibson (Dept. of Physics, Norwegian Univ. of Sci. and Technol., 7491 Trondheim, Norway) are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical loss measurements in silicon fibers”.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of butt-coupling and scanning fiber arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image (scale bar is 1µm) (b) microprobe data from a line scan from the cladding to the core. The interface modifier makes a layer about one micron thick, with good confinement of calcium to the layer. Oxygen in the silicon core is at the limit of detection. (c) Si Raman signal from a fiber core.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase diagram of the CaO – SiO2 system [23].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fractured small-diameter fiber, (b) bending radius of the fiber shown in the first panel (ruled markings are cm) (c) SEM image of the surface of a ~65 µm diameter fiber, used for waveguide loss measurements, after removal of the glass coating. Striations shown in the expanded and contrast-enhanced inset likely arise from the eutectic decomposition of the oxides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectrum of fibers, empty silica tubing, and CaO slurry after drying.

Equations (1)

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C a O ( s ) + H 2 O C a ( O H ) 2 ( a q )

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