Abstract

We report on the fabrication of depressed double-cladding waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by using femtosecond (fs) laser inscription. The double-cladding structures consist of tubular central structures with 30 μm diameter and concentric larger size tubular claddings with diameters of 100-200 μm. Continuous wave laser oscillations at wavelength of 1030 nm have been realized at room temperature through optical pump at 946 nm. The obtained maximum output power of the double-cladding waveguide lasers is ~80.2 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 62.9%.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2012 (5)

2011 (6)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express17(11), 8919–8925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser crystals and ceramics: recent advances,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(2), 93–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1890–1892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “Overview of the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp.323–324, 210–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

Aung, Y. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

A. Ródenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Boulon, G.

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “Overview of the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp.323–324, 210–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “Overview of the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp.323–324, 210–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovskii, Yu.

Chen, F.

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Continuous wave laser operation in Nd:GGG depressed tubular cladding waveguides produced by inscription of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 278–283 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbari, C.

Davis, K. M.

Dong, J.

Dubs, C.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Filippov, V.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golant, K.

Grivas, C.

Gross, S.

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hilbert, V.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Jia, Y. C.

Kamimura, T.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser crystals and ceramics: recent advances,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(2), 93–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1890–1892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Kar, A. K.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerttula, J.

Kuan, K.

Kudryashov, A.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Lagoudakis, P. G.

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. L.

Lu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Lu, Q. M.

Macdonald, J. R.

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messing, G. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Nakamura, S.

Nolte, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Okhrimchuk, A.

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, A. G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prabhu, M.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Psaila, N. D.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, R.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ringleb, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J. P.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Shirakawa, A.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, W. F.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Taira, T.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomsom, R. R.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1890–1892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Vázquez de Aldana, J.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wada, S.

Withford, M. J.

Yagi, H.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1890–1892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Yanagitani, T.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1890–1892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Yoshida, K.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

Zeil, P.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, T. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “Overview of the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp.323–324, 210–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser crystals and ceramics: recent advances,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(2), 93–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. Kudryashov, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Potential of ceramic YAG lasers,” Laser Phys.10(11), 1053–1057 (2001).

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express20(4), 3832–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express17(11), 8919–8925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Filippov, Yu. Chamorovskii, J. Kerttula, K. Golant, M. Pessa, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Double clad tapered fiber for high power applications,” Opt. Express16(3), 1929–1944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. J. Murphy, Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of fs-laser inscription process in Yb:YAG ceramics for the double cladding waveguides, and their cross sectional microscope images, which consist of tubular central structures with 30 μm diameter, and concentric larger size tubular claddings with diameters of (b) 200, (c) 150 and (d) 100 μm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field modal profiles of the TE and TM guided modes (at 632.8 nm) from the double-cladding waveguides with external diameters of (a) 200, (b) 150 and (c) 100μm. The red dashed lines indicate the spatial locations of the fs-laser induced tracks. The colors bar in the right show the normalized intensity magnitude of the mode profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum of laser emissions at 1030 nm from the inner core of the 200-μm Yb:YAG ceramic double-cladding waveguide when the pumping laser was TM polarized. Laser modal profiles of the double-cladding waveguides with diameters of (b) 200, (c) 150 and (d) 100 μm at the lasing wavelength of ~1030 nm with TM polarization. The red dashed lines indicate the spatial locations of the fs-laser induced tracks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output laser power as a function of the launched pump power obtained from the inner 30 μm-diameter cores of the three double-cladding waveguides with (a) TE and (b) TM polarization, respectively. The blue square, red circular and green triangular symbols stand for the data of the double-cladding waveguides with outer diameters of 100, 150 and 200 μm, respectively. The solid lines represent the linear fit of the experimental data.

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