Abstract

Two formats of all-organic distributed-feedback lasers with improved photostability, respectively called nanocomposite and encapsulated lasers, are reported. These lasers are compatible with mechanically-flexible platforms and were entirely fabricated using soft-lithography and spin-coating techniques. The gain elements in both types of lasers were monodisperse π-conjugated star-shaped macromolecules (oligofluorene truxene, T3). In the nanocomposites lasers, these elements were incorporated into a transparent polyimide matrix, while in the encapsulated devices a neat layer of T3 was overcoated with Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The T3-nanocomposite devices demonstrated a 1/e degradation energy dosage up to ~27.0 ± 6.5 J/cm2 with a threshold fluence of 115 ± 10 µJ/cm2. This represents a 3-fold improvement in operation lifetime under ambient conditions compared to the equivalent laser made with neat organic films, albeit with a 1.6-time increase in threshold. The PVA-encapsulated lasers showed the best overall performance: a 40-time improvement in the operation lifetime and crucially no-trade-off on the threshold, with respectively a degradation energy dosage of ~280 ± 20 J/cm2 and a threshold fluence of 36 ± 8 µJ/cm2.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais and S. Forget, “Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers,” Polym. Int.61(3), 390–406 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

O. G. Abdullah and D. R. Saber, “Optical absorption of polyvinyl alcohol films doped with nickel chloride,” Appl. Mech. Mater.110-116, 177–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(3), 033107 (2008).

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: the roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abdullah, O. G.

O. G. Abdullah and D. R. Saber, “Optical absorption of polyvinyl alcohol films doped with nickel chloride,” Appl. Mech. Mater.110-116, 177–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adhyapak, P. V.

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aiyer, R. C.

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. A.

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benstem, T.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Berridge, R.

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocksrocker, T.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D.

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brütting, W.

Buseman-Williams, J.

J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calle, M.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camposeo, A.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: the roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerdán, L.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chénais, S.

S. Chénais and S. Forget, “Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers,” Polym. Int.61(3), 390–406 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chilwell, J.

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M.

Dawson, M. D.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, J.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Del Carro, P.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durán-Sampedro, G.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

S. Chénais and S. Forget, “Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers,” Polym. Int.61(3), 390–406 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(3), 033107 (2008).

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J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
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L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
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L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
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L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
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J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
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S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
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J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
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S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
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S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
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J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilhabert, B.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. K.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herrnsdorf, J.

Heussner, N.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
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J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huska, K.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juan-y-Seva, M.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kanibolotsky, A.

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, W.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, P. K.

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koeberg, M.

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kumagai, M.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurand, N.

Lehnhardt, M.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
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Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
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M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
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Mackintosh, A.

Mappes, T.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McKendry, J. J. D.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mückl, A. G.

Muñoz, D.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
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M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
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T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’ Faolain, L.

Park, S.-J.

M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perepichka, I. F.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
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Pethrick, R.

Pisignano, D.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogantsch, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribierre, J. C.

Richardson, E.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, S.

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivaton, A.

J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saafir, A. K.

J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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O. G. Abdullah and D. R. Saber, “Optical absorption of polyvinyl alcohol films doped with nickel chloride,” Appl. Mech. Mater.110-116, 177–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D.

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seida, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. E.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N.

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skabara, P.

Skabara, P. J.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, M. H.

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(3), 033107 (2008).

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tétreault, N.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thérias, S.

J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tremel, J. D.

J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsiminis, G.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, G.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vannahme, C.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vasdekis, A. E.

Vijayan, A.

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, M. R.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, B.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(3), 033107 (2008).

White, J. M.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: the roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong-Wah-Chung, P.

J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: the roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zojer, E.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: the roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater.24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater.16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Mech. Mater. (1)

O. G. Abdullah and D. R. Saber, “Optical absorption of polyvinyl alcohol films doped with nickel chloride,” Appl. Mech. Mater.110-116, 177–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 897–900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(3), 033107 (2008).

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 261104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Richardson, J. J. D. McKendry, G. Valentine, R. K. Henderson, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Sub-micron lithography using InGaN micro-LEDs: mask-free fabrication of LED arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(24), 2221–2224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, “Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13695–13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, G. Durán-Sampedro, I. García-Moreno, M. Calle, M. Juan-y-Seva, J. de Abajo, and G. A. Turnbull, “New perylene-doped polymeric thin films for efficient and long-lasting lasers,” J. Mater. Chem.22(18), 8938–8947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. Buseman-Williams, K. D. Frischknecht, M. D. Hubert, A. K. Saafir, and J. D. Tremel, “Flat-plate encapsulation solution for OLED displays using a printed getter,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.15(2), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Cerdán, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, O. García, R. Sastre, M. Calle, D. Muñoz, and J. de Abajo, “High-gain long-lived amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped fluorinated polyimide planar waveguides,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.210(19), 1624–1631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

P. V. Adhyapak, N. Singh, A. Vijayan, R. C. Aiyer, and P. K. Khanna, “Single mode waveguide properties of m-NA doped Au/PVA nano-composites: synthesis, characterization and studies,” Mater. Lett.61(16), 3456–3461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Lu, B. T. Cunningham, S.-J. Park, and J. G. Eden, “Vertically emitting, dye-doped polymer laser in the green (λ ~536 nm) with a second order distributed feedback grating fabricated by replica molding,” Opt. Commun.281(11), 3159–3162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polym. Int. (1)

S. Chénais and S. Forget, “Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers,” Polym. Int.61(3), 390–406 (2012).
[CrossRef]

RSC Adv. (1)

J. Gaume, P. Wong-Wah-Chung, A. Rivaton, S. Thérias, and J.-L. Gardette, “Photochemical behavior of PVA as an oxygen-barrier polymer for solar cell encapsulation,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

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J. G. Pritchard, Poly (vinyl alcohol): Basic Properties and Uses (Gordon and Breach, 1970).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the device structures are shown: (a) neat T3 laser, (b) nanocomposite laser and (c) encapsulated laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode and refractive index profile of a neat laser (top) and an encapsulated laser (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) Respectively spectra and power transfer functions of a neat T3/THF and T3/toluene lasers, (c) comparison of the intensity decay of a T3/THF in air and water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Emission spectrum and power transfer function of a nanocomposite laser, (b) comparison of the energy decay of the nanocomposite and neat laser, (c) intensity decay of the nanocomposite laser in air and in water.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum and power transfer function of an encapsulated laser with a 180nm PVA layer, (b) intensity decay of the encapsulated laser, (c) comparison of intensity decay of the encapsulated laser with the nanocomposite laser and the neat laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Emission spectrum and power transfer function of the encapsulated laser with a 580nm-thick PVA layer, (b) comparison of the energy decay of both encapsulated lasers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Results on Nanocomposite and Encapsulated Lasers

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