Abstract

The refractive indices of a class of Blue-Phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) and their temperature dependence have been measured and analyzed. In general, the thermal index gradients in blue phases, BPI and BPII, are both larger than in isotropic liquid state; the index gradient of BPII phase is steeper than that of BPI, and is attributed to the difference between the expansion coefficients of simple and body-centered cubic lattices. Besides their obvious importance in photonics and nonlinear optical processes and applications, the investigation of the phase dependence of the index gradient also provides a useful way for phase identification of BPLCs, namely the second-order and weakly first order phase transitions corresponding to the ISO/BPII transition and the BPII/BPI transition.

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  1. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Chen, C. T. Wang, C. P. Yu, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. C. Khoo and T. H. Lin, “Nonlinear optical grating diffraction in dye-doped blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3225–3227 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. W. Chen, H. C. Jau, C. T. Wang, C. H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T. H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. I. Transformation kinetics and pretransition effects in cholesteryl myristate,” J. Phys. Chem.75(18), 2839–2849 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.21(4), 329–335 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 19–24 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. IV. Transformation behavior and pretransition effects in p-azoxyanisole,” J. Phys. Chem.76(18), 2605–2608 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Flack and P. P. Crooker, “Angular-dependence of selective reflection from the blue phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)69(3-4), 281–286 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. C. Khoo, K. L. Hong, S. Zhao, D. Ma, and T.-H. Lin, “Blue-phase liquid crystal cored optical fiber array with photonic bandgaps and nonlinear transmission properties,” Opt. Express21(4), 4319–4327 (2013).
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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, C. T. Wang, C. P. Yu, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Y. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.21(4), 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. N. Kleiman, D. J. Bishop, R. Pindak, and P. Taborek, “Shear modulus and specific-heat of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2137–2140 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. H. Flack and P. P. Crooker, “Angular-dependence of selective reflection from the blue phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)69(3-4), 281–286 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Armitage and R. J. Cox, “Liquid-crystal blue phase to isotropic transition and electric-field response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)64(2), 41–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. Demus, H. G. Hahn, and F. Kuschel, “Density-measurements in cholesteryl myristate,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)44, 61–70 (1978).

1972 (1)

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. IV. Transformation behavior and pretransition effects in p-azoxyanisole,” J. Phys. Chem.76(18), 2605–2608 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. I. Transformation kinetics and pretransition effects in cholesteryl myristate,” J. Phys. Chem.75(18), 2839–2849 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage and R. J. Cox, “Liquid-crystal blue phase to isotropic transition and electric-field response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)64(2), 41–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, D. J.

R. N. Kleiman, D. J. Bishop, R. Pindak, and P. Taborek, “Shear modulus and specific-heat of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2137–2140 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W. Y.

W. Y. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, R. J.

D. Armitage and R. J. Cox, “Liquid-crystal blue phase to isotropic transition and electric-field response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)64(2), 41–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, P. P.

J. H. Flack and P. P. Crooker, “Angular-dependence of selective reflection from the blue phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)69(3-4), 281–286 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Demus, D.

D. Demus, H. G. Hahn, and F. Kuschel, “Density-measurements in cholesteryl myristate,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)44, 61–70 (1978).

Fan, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flack, J. H.

J. H. Flack and P. P. Crooker, “Angular-dependence of selective reflection from the blue phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)69(3-4), 281–286 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Germain, C.

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Godec, V.

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, H. G.

D. Demus, H. G. Hahn, and F. Kuschel, “Density-measurements in cholesteryl myristate,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)44, 61–70 (1978).

Haran, G.

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heppke, G.

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. L.

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H. C.

C. W. Chen, H. C. Jau, C. T. Wang, C. H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T. H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jérôme, B.

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kleiman, R. N.

R. N. Kleiman, D. J. Bishop, R. Pindak, and P. Taborek, “Shear modulus and specific-heat of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2137–2140 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuschel, F.

D. Demus, H. G. Hahn, and F. Kuschel, “Density-measurements in cholesteryl myristate,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)44, 61–70 (1978).

Lee, C. H.

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

Lin, T.-H.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

Muñoz, A.

W. Y. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, G.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Normandin, R.

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.21(4), 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Y. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, G.

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pieranski, P.

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France50(5), 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Jérôme, P. Pieranski, V. Godec, G. Haran, and C. Germain, “Determination of the blue phase-II structure,” J. Phys. (Paris)49(5), 837–844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pindak, R.

R. N. Kleiman, D. J. Bishop, R. Pindak, and P. Taborek, “Shear modulus and specific-heat of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2137–2140 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, F. P.

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. IV. Transformation behavior and pretransition effects in p-azoxyanisole,” J. Phys. Chem.76(18), 2605–2608 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. I. Transformation kinetics and pretransition effects in cholesteryl myristate,” J. Phys. Chem.75(18), 2839–2849 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(11), 615–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taborek, P.

R. N. Kleiman, D. J. Bishop, R. Pindak, and P. Taborek, “Shear modulus and specific-heat of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2137–2140 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Y. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

Wendorff, J. H.

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. IV. Transformation behavior and pretransition effects in p-azoxyanisole,” J. Phys. Chem.76(18), 2605–2608 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Price and J. H. Wendorff, “Transitions in mesophase forming systems. I. Transformation kinetics and pretransition effects in cholesteryl myristate,” J. Phys. Chem.75(18), 2839–2849 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 19–24 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. He, G. Pan, Z. Yang, D. Zhao, G. Niu, W. Huang, X. Yuan, J. Guo, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Wide blue phase range in a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled complex of chiral fluoro-substituted benzoic acid and pyridine derivative,” Adv. Mater.21(20), 2050–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase identifications through (a) naked eye observation (b) R-POM images, (c) Kossel diagrams and (d) variations in reflection wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup for measuring the temperature dependence of the refractive index of BPLCs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured intensity of a spot in the interference pattern as a function of the operating temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature-dependent refractive index of LK-40, LK-45 and RT-35. The open circles are the experimental data; the circles with crosses inside are the points not included in the fittings; the solid lines are the fitting curves using Eq. (1); the arrows point out the phase transition points determined by the experimental curves of the temperature-dependent interference intensity and fitting curves of the temperature-dependent refractive index.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Transition Temperatures of the BPLCs a

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Table 2 Magnitudes of the Refractive-Index Gradients of the BPLCs in Various Phases

Equations (2)

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n = d n d T T + n f ,
( d n d T ) BPII > ( d n d T ) BPI > ( d n d T ) ISO ,

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