Abstract

This paper presents a new technique for fabricating thick (>10µm) chalcogenide multilayer structures. Films of arbitrary thicknesses are readily achieved through spin-coating, lamination and baking. For homogeneous systems, layer interfaces can be effectively removed by annealing above Tg. Alternatively, heterogeneous multilayer films can be realized by introducing layers of different chalcogenide materials or metals. In particular, photo-induced Ag dissolution is verified in a laminated multilayer film, with a refractive index increase greater than 0.2. The work presented here has great implications for chalcogenide deposition with potential applications in data storage, IR detection and IR beam combining.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, and S. R. Elliott, “Reversible photoinduced change of photoconductivity in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(18), 11857–11861 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. J. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041115 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. A. G. Steventon, “Microfilaments in amorphous-chalcogenide memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.8(9), L120–L122 (1975).
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  24. K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Skordeva, K. Christova, M. Tzolov, and Z. Dimitrova, “Photoinduced changes of mechanical stress in amorphous Ge-As-S(Se) film/Si substrate systems,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(1), 103–107 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  33. M. Mitkova, Y. Sakaguchi, D. Tenne, S. K. Bhagat, and T. L. Alford, “Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory,” Phys Status Solidi A207(3), 621–626 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. J. Cantrell, and C. B. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (submitted).
  37. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express18(25), 26744–26753 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. Frumar and T. Wagner, “Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.7(2), 117–126 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  42. K. A. Campell and J. T. Moore, “Silver-selenide/chalcogenide glass stack for resistence variable memory,” US 2003/0155589 A1 (2012).

2012

2010

2009

F. Kyriazis and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Colossal photostructural changes in chalcogenide glasses: athermal photoinduced polymerization in AsxS100-x bulk glasses revealed by near-bandgap Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. A. Campbell and C. M. Anderson, “Phase-change memory devices with stacked Ge-chalcogenide/Sn-chalcogenide layers,” Microelectron. J.38(1), 52–59 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kokenyesi, “Amorphous chalcogenide nano-multilayers: research and development,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.8, 2093–2096 (2006).

P. Abgrall, C. Lattes, V. Conédéra, X. Dollat, S. Colin, and A. M. Gué, “A novel fabrication method of flexible and monolithic 3D microfluidic structures using lamination of SU-8 films,” J. Micromech. Microeng.16(1), 113–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zogg and M. Arnold, “Narrow spectral band monolithic lead-chalcogenide-on-Si mid-IR photodetectors,” Opto-Electron. Rev.14(1), 33–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. J. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.6, 875–882 (2004).

S. Hudgens and B. Johnson, “Overview of phase-change chalcogenide nonvolatile memory technology,” MRS Bull.29(11), 829–832 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Frumar and T. Wagner, “Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.7(2), 117–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Tang, N. A. Kotov, S. Magonov, and B. Ozturk, “Nanostructured artificial nacre,” Nat. Mater.2(6), 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Teteris, “Holographic recording in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 687–697 (2002).

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Wagner, M. Frumar, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “New Ag-containing amorphous chalcogenide thin films—prospective materials for rewriteable optical memories,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 227–232 (2001).

2000

T. Wagner and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced dissolution effect in Ag/AS33S67 multilayer structures and its potential application,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266-269, 979–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, M. Mitkova, and T. Petkova, “Laser-induced polarization-dependent photocrystallization of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids227-230, 739–742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Skordeva, K. Christova, M. Tzolov, and Z. Dimitrova, “Photoinduced changes of mechanical stress in amorphous Ge-As-S(Se) film/Si substrate systems,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(1), 103–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. V. Kolobov and S. R. Elliott, “Photodoping of amorphous chalcogenides by metals,” Adv. Phys.40(5), 625–684 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, and S. R. Elliott, “Reversible photoinduced change of photoconductivity in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(18), 11857–11861 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

H.-Y. Tsoi, J. P. Ellul, M. I. King, J. J. White, and W. C. Bradley, “A deep-depletion CCD imager for soft-X-ray, visible, and near-infrared sensing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.32(8), 1525–1530 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced structural and physicochemical changes in amorphous-chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass-fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. G. Steventon, “Microfilaments in amorphous-chalcogenide memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.8(9), L120–L122 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, P.

P. Abgrall, C. Lattes, V. Conédéra, X. Dollat, S. Colin, and A. M. Gué, “A novel fabrication method of flexible and monolithic 3D microfluidic structures using lamination of SU-8 films,” J. Micromech. Microeng.16(1), 113–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Alford, T. L.

M. Mitkova, Y. Sakaguchi, D. Tenne, S. K. Bhagat, and T. L. Alford, “Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory,” Phys Status Solidi A207(3), 621–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. M.

K. A. Campbell and C. M. Anderson, “Phase-change memory devices with stacked Ge-chalcogenide/Sn-chalcogenide layers,” Microelectron. J.38(1), 52–59 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsen, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides on lithium niobate for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3228–3230 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express18(25), 26744–26753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. J. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. J. Cantrell, and C. B. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (submitted).

Arnold, M.

H. Zogg and M. Arnold, “Narrow spectral band monolithic lead-chalcogenide-on-Si mid-IR photodetectors,” Opto-Electron. Rev.14(1), 33–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balan, V.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.6, 875–882 (2004).

Bhagat, S. K.

M. Mitkova, Y. Sakaguchi, D. Tenne, S. K. Bhagat, and T. L. Alford, “Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory,” Phys Status Solidi A207(3), 621–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boudies, J.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, W. C.

H.-Y. Tsoi, J. P. Ellul, M. I. King, J. J. White, and W. C. Bradley, “A deep-depletion CCD imager for soft-X-ray, visible, and near-infrared sensing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.32(8), 1525–1530 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B. C.

Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y. F.

Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K. A.

K. A. Campbell and C. M. Anderson, “Phase-change memory devices with stacked Ge-chalcogenide/Sn-chalcogenide layers,” Microelectron. J.38(1), 52–59 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

Cantrell, S. J.

Y. Zha, S. Fingerman, S. J. Cantrell, and C. B. Arnold, “Pore formation and removal in solution-processed amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (submitted).

Carlie, N.

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18(25), 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christova, K.

E. Skordeva, K. Christova, M. Tzolov, and Z. Dimitrova, “Photoinduced changes of mechanical stress in amorphous Ge-As-S(Se) film/Si substrate systems,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(1), 103–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colin, S.

P. Abgrall, C. Lattes, V. Conédéra, X. Dollat, S. Colin, and A. M. Gué, “A novel fabrication method of flexible and monolithic 3D microfluidic structures using lamination of SU-8 films,” J. Micromech. Microeng.16(1), 113–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conédéra, V.

P. Abgrall, C. Lattes, V. Conédéra, X. Dollat, S. Colin, and A. M. Gué, “A novel fabrication method of flexible and monolithic 3D microfluidic structures using lamination of SU-8 films,” J. Micromech. Microeng.16(1), 113–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

Deol, R. S.

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Howard, S. S.

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H.-Y. Tsoi, J. P. Ellul, M. I. King, J. J. White, and W. C. Bradley, “A deep-depletion CCD imager for soft-X-ray, visible, and near-infrared sensing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.32(8), 1525–1530 (1985).
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S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. J. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041115 (2006).
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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
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Magonov, S.

Z. Y. Tang, N. A. Kotov, S. Magonov, and B. Ozturk, “Nanostructured artificial nacre,” Nat. Mater.2(6), 413–418 (2003).
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H. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
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Novak, S.

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A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced structural and physicochemical changes in amorphous-chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B52(3), 347–362 (1985).
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Z. Y. Tang, N. A. Kotov, S. Magonov, and B. Ozturk, “Nanostructured artificial nacre,” Nat. Mater.2(6), 413–418 (2003).
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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
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S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
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L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
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Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
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H. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
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Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
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Richardson, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
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K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
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M. Mitkova, Y. Sakaguchi, D. Tenne, S. K. Bhagat, and T. L. Alford, “Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory,” Phys Status Solidi A207(3), 621–626 (2010).
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Schulte, A.

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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
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Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, and S. R. Elliott, “Reversible photoinduced change of photoconductivity in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(18), 11857–11861 (1990).
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S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
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Skordeva, E.

E. Skordeva, K. Christova, M. Tzolov, and Z. Dimitrova, “Photoinduced changes of mechanical stress in amorphous Ge-As-S(Se) film/Si substrate systems,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(1), 103–107 (1998).
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S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
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S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. J. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041115 (2006).
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Y. F. Lai, J. Feng, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Cai, Y. Y. Lin, T. A. Tang, B. C. Cai, and B. Chen, “Stacked chalcogenide layers used as multi-state storage medium for phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 21–25 (2006).
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Z. Y. Tang, N. A. Kotov, S. Magonov, and B. Ozturk, “Nanostructured artificial nacre,” Nat. Mater.2(6), 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Mitkova, Y. Sakaguchi, D. Tenne, S. K. Bhagat, and T. L. Alford, “Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory,” Phys Status Solidi A207(3), 621–626 (2010).
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T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass-fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.2(5), 607–613 (1984).
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H.-Y. Tsoi, J. P. Ellul, M. I. King, J. J. White, and W. C. Bradley, “A deep-depletion CCD imager for soft-X-ray, visible, and near-infrared sensing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.32(8), 1525–1530 (1985).
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E. Skordeva, K. Christova, M. Tzolov, and Z. Dimitrova, “Photoinduced changes of mechanical stress in amorphous Ge-As-S(Se) film/Si substrate systems,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(1), 103–107 (1998).
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Vigreux, C.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.6, 875–882 (2004).

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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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T. Wagner, M. Frumar, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “New Ag-containing amorphous chalcogenide thin films—prospective materials for rewriteable optical memories,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 227–232 (2001).

Volterra, V.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
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M. Frumar and T. Wagner, “Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.7(2), 117–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Frumar, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “New Ag-containing amorphous chalcogenide thin films—prospective materials for rewriteable optical memories,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 227–232 (2001).

T. Wagner and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced dissolution effect in Ag/AS33S67 multilayer structures and its potential application,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266-269, 979–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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T. Wágner, A. Mackova, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek, and M. Vlcek, “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299-302, 1028–1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H.-Y. Tsoi, J. P. Ellul, M. I. King, J. J. White, and W. C. Bradley, “A deep-depletion CCD imager for soft-X-ray, visible, and near-infrared sensing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.32(8), 1525–1530 (1985).
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Wylangowski, G.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spin-coating and lamination steps for fabricating chalcogenide multilayer structures (a) Spin-coat solution-dissolved chalcogenide onto a piece of NaCl substrate (b) Soft and hard baking to remove solvents (c) [optional] Evaporate a metal layer onto the solidified chalcogenide film (d) Dissolve the NaCl substrate in water to detach films (e) Stack films on top of each other to obtain multilayer structures (f) Post-bake or anneal at a high temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thickness steps measured of a four-layer As2S3 structure before annealing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTIR spectra of multilayer films and extracted transmission valleys. Films are annealed at 150°C for 13 hrs. (a) Lowest transmission of single and multilayer structures plotted against total film thicknesses. Dashed line is a linear fit and solid line is an exponential fit. (b) Full FTIR spectra of multilayer structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left: Films with no annealing shows an interface in the middle; Right: Interface removed with annealing at 200°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: An As2S3 and As2Se3 double-layer; Right: Normalized EDX analysis of material composition across the interface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional SEM of 200 nm thick Ag (thin white layers in the middle) and As2S3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Visible transmission spectrums of Ag dissolving into laminated As2S3 layers at different exposure intervals; Right: Transmission level at 700 nm extracted from the left graph and plotted against exposure time.

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