Abstract

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was adopted to grow zinc oxide (ZnO) film on sapphire substrate and improve the quality of ZnO thin film epitaxy using a magnesium oxide (MgO) buffer layer and a two-segment temperature scheme for ZnO thin film growth. The influence of thermal annealing of different layers on the optical and crystalline features, stress expression, as well as surface morphology of ZnO thin film was examined. SEM images showed smooth surfaces were formed, and these surfaces allowed the low-temperature ZnO buffer layer to have better epitaxial environment at the very beginning. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a lower thermal annealing temperature more effectively released the stress of materials. The thermally annealed MgO buffer layer had 26% less strain than the purely thermally annealed, high-temperature-grown ZnO (HT-ZnO), and 33% less strain than the unannealed samples. Atomic force microscopy results showed that the root-mean-square of surface roughness of thermally annealed MgO was 0.255 nm, which was 80% lower than that of thermally annealed HT-ZnO (1.241 nm). Photoluminescence measurement showed that the thermally annealed MgO buffer layer had the highest strength for near-band-edge emission because of improved crystalline quality. HRTEM results showed that the stress caused by the mismatch between the sapphire lattice was effectively released because the MgO buffer layer was annealed at a high temperature. The surface of the MgO buffer layer became smooth and the stress mismatching with the ZnO lattice did not obviously extend upwards. When MBE was used to grow ZnO thin film, a lower thermal annealing temperature for the MgO buffer layer more effectively controlled stress accumulation and produced high-quality ZnO thin film.

© 2013 OSA

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  2. K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Oyola, J. M. Castro, and G. Gordillo, “ZnO films grown using a novel procedure based on the reactive evaporation method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells102, 137–141 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
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  11. Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and N. H. Kim, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown on SiO2 by the RF magnetron sputtering,” Physica B334(3-4), 343–346 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. H. Bang, D. K. Hwang, and J. M. Myoung, “Effects of ZnO buffer layer thickness on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.207(1-4), 359–364 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, and T. Yao, “Effects of annealing of MgO buffer layer on structural quality of ZnO layers grown by P-MBE on c-sapphire,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.6(5-6), 371–374 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. T. Lim and C. H. Lee, “Highly oriented ZnO thin films deposited on Ru/Si substrates,” Thin Solid Films353(1-2), 12–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Sahu, B. S. Acharya, and A. K. Panda, “Role of Ag ions on the structural evolution of nano ZnO clusters synthesized through ultrasonication and their optical properties,” Ultrason. Sonochem.18(2), 601–607 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Oyola, J. M. Castro, and G. Gordillo, “ZnO films grown using a novel procedure based on the reactive evaporation method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells102, 137–141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sahu, B. S. Acharya, and A. K. Panda, “Role of Ag ions on the structural evolution of nano ZnO clusters synthesized through ultrasonication and their optical properties,” Ultrason. Sonochem.18(2), 601–607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Wang, H. P. Sun, and X. Q. Pan, “Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. H. Bang, D. K. Hwang, and J. M. Myoung, “Effects of ZnO buffer layer thickness on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.207(1-4), 359–364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, and T. Yao, “Effects of annealing of MgO buffer layer on structural quality of ZnO layers grown by P-MBE on c-sapphire,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.6(5-6), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and N. H. Kim, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown on SiO2 by the RF magnetron sputtering,” Physica B334(3-4), 343–346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. T. Lim and C. H. Lee, “Highly oriented ZnO thin films deposited on Ru/Si substrates,” Thin Solid Films353(1-2), 12–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, B. S.

D. Sahu, B. S. Acharya, and A. K. Panda, “Role of Ag ions on the structural evolution of nano ZnO clusters synthesized through ultrasonication and their optical properties,” Ultrason. Sonochem.18(2), 601–607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arif, R. A.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arizpe-Cha’vez, H.

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arora, A. K.

K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B. M.

B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bagamadova, A. M.

B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bakin, A.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baldenegro-Pe’rez, L. A.

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bang, K. H.

K. H. Bang, D. K. Hwang, and J. M. Myoung, “Effects of ZnO buffer layer thickness on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.207(1-4), 359–364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J. M.

J. S. Oyola, J. M. Castro, and G. Gordillo, “ZnO films grown using a novel procedure based on the reactive evaporation method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells102, 137–141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

Chen, P. J.

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chueh, Y. L.

Chung, R. B.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J. P.

J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dao, L. V.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deepak,

P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, J. H.

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y.

J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Shaer, A.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z. B.

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Francesco Pecora, E.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. P.

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordillo, G.

J. S. Oyola, J. M. Castro, and G. Gordillo, “ZnO films grown using a novel procedure based on the reactive evaporation method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells102, 137–141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gu, R.

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S.

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, C. R.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. K.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, R.

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. K.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. P.

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, S.

K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. K.

K. H. Bang, D. K. Hwang, and J. M. Myoung, “Effects of ZnO buffer layer thickness on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.207(1-4), 359–364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ihm, Y. E.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, K.

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. J.

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katiyar, R. S.

K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaur, D.

P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. C.

B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. W.

K. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and N. H. Kim, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown on SiO2 by the RF magnetron sputtering,” Physica B334(3-4), 343–346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and N. H. Kim, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown on SiO2 by the RF magnetron sputtering,” Physica B334(3-4), 343–346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. H.

K. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and N. H. Kim, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown on SiO2 by the RF magnetron sputtering,” Physica B334(3-4), 343–346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kioseoglou, J.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirshner, V.

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. J.

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, and T. Yao, “Effects of annealing of MgO buffer layer on structural quality of ZnO layers grown by P-MBE on c-sapphire,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.6(5-6), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koike, K.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, K.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. C.

Lee, C. H.

W. T. Lim and C. H. Lee, “Highly oriented ZnO thin films deposited on Ru/Si substrates,” Thin Solid Films353(1-2), 12–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, Y. L. Chueh, C. C. Lai, L. H. Chen, and R. C. C. Tsiang, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 237–247 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, W. T.

W. T. Lim and C. H. Lee, “Highly oriented ZnO thin films deposited on Ru/Si substrates,” Thin Solid Films353(1-2), 12–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Y.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Q.

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lundin, W. V.

B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, V. V.

B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Medina-Montes, M. I.

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mofor, A.-C.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohanta, S. K.

B. H. Kong, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “Influence of VI/II ratios on the growth of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrate by low temperature MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films518(11), 2975–2979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

K. H. Bang, D. K. Hwang, and J. M. Myoung, “Effects of ZnO buffer layer thickness on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.207(1-4), 359–364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, A. Yu.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, K.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oyola, J. S.

J. S. Oyola, J. M. Castro, and G. Gordillo, “ZnO films grown using a novel procedure based on the reactive evaporation method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells102, 137–141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X. Q.

X. Q. Wang, H. P. Sun, and X. Q. Pan, “Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panda, A. K.

D. Sahu, B. S. Acharya, and A. K. Panda, “Role of Ag ions on the structural evolution of nano ZnO clusters synthesized through ultrasonication and their optical properties,” Ultrason. Sonochem.18(2), 601–607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. S.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pecz, B.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pécz, B.

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, F.

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quevedo-Lo’pez, M. A.

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rami’rez-Bon, R.

M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, D.

D. Sahu, B. S. Acharya, and A. K. Panda, “Role of Ag ions on the structural evolution of nano ZnO clusters synthesized through ultrasonication and their optical properties,” Ultrason. Sonochem.18(2), 601–607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Samanta, A. K. Arora, S. Hussain, S. Chakravarty, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on nanocrystalline p-type ZnO-Sb,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12(5), 1381–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasa, S.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Setiawan, A.

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, and T. Yao, “Effects of annealing of MgO buffer layer on structural quality of ZnO layers grown by P-MBE on c-sapphire,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.6(5-6), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

R. Hong, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.242(3-4), 346–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. Y.

Y. J. Chen, Y. Y. Shih, C. H. Ho, J. H. Du, and Y. P. Fu, “Effect of temperature on lateral growth of ZnO grains grown by MOCVD,” Ceram. Int.36(1), 69–73 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, R.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, P.

P. Singh, A. Kumar, Deepak, and D. Kaur, “ZnO nanocrystalline powder synthesized by ultrasonic mist-chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Mater.30(8), 1316–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoemenos, J.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. P.

X. Q. Wang, H. P. Sun, and X. Q. Pan, “Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tafon Penn, S.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. S.

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teshigawara, H.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsiang, R. C. C.

Waag, A.

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, Y. L. Chueh, C. C. Lai, L. H. Chen, and R. C. C. Tsiang, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express3(2), 237–247 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. F.

J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Q.

X. Q. Wang, H. P. Sun, and X. Q. Pan, “Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 151908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Y.

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wenisch, H.

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z. J.

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, “Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.241(3-4), 303–308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

S. Y. Ting, P. J. Chen, H. C. Wang, C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, and C. C. Yang, “Crystallinity improvement of ZnO thin film on different buffer layers grown by MBE,” J. Nanomater.2012, 929278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. M.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yano, M.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

J. G. Kim, S. K. Han, S. M. Yang, S. K. Hong, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Song, Y. E. Ihm, D. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and T. Yao, “Effects of low temperature ZnO and MgO buffer thicknesses on properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films519(1), 223–227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kato, K. Miyamoto, M. Sano, and T. Yao, “Polarity control of ZnO on sapphire by varying the MgO buffer layer thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(22), 4562–4564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, and T. Yao, “Effects of annealing of MgO buffer layer on structural quality of ZnO layers grown by P-MBE on c-sapphire,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.6(5-6), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Setiawan, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, Y. Chen, and T. Yao, “Study on MgO buffer in ZnO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001),” Thin Solid Films445(2), 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. J. Ko, V. Kirshner, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, K. Inaba, and Y. Segawa, “Effects of an extremely thin buffer on heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3352–3354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Layer-by-layer growth of ZnO epilayer on Al2O3(0001) by using a MgO buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 559–561 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

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J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
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G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
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J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
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J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
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Appl. Surf. Sci.

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Ceram. Int.

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IET Optoelectron.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Pécz, A. El-Shaer, A. Bakin, A.-C. Mofor, A. Waag, and J. Stoemenos, “Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.100(10), 103506 (2006).
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S. Fuke, H. Teshigawara, K. Kuwahara, Y. Takano, T. Ito, M. Yanagihara, and K. Ohtsuka, “Influences of initial nitridation and buffer layer deposition on the morphology of a (0001) GaN layer grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.83(2), 764 (1998).
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K. K. Kim, J. H. Song, H. J. Jung, W. K. Choi, S.-J. Park, and J.-H. Song, “The grain size effects on the photoluminescence of ZnO/α-Al2O3 grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3573–3575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

J. Ye, S. Gu, S. Zhu, T. Chen, L. Hu, F. Qin, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. Zheng, “The growth and annealing of single crystalline ZnO films by low-pressure MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 151–156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bakin, J. Kioseoglou, B. Pecz, A. El-Shaer, A.-C. Mofor, J. Stoemenos, and A. Waag, “Misfit reduction by a spinel layer formed during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on sapphire using a MgO buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth308(2), 314–320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, S. Gu, S. Zhu, S. Huang, R. Gu, J. Ye, and Y. Zheng, “Optimization study of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO on sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth349(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. I. Medina-Montes, H. Arizpe-Cha’vez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pe’rez, M. A. Quevedo-Lo’pez, and R. Rami’rez-Bon, “RF power effect on the properties of sputtered zno films for channel layer applications in thin-film transistors,” J. Electron. Mater.41(7), 1962–1969 (2012).
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B. M. Ataev, W. V. Lundin, V. V. Mamedov, A. M. Bagamadova, and E. E. Zavarin, “Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition growth of high-quality ZnO films on epi-GaN/α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(9), L211–L214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Microelectron. J.

J. P. Cui, Y. Duan, X. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Strain status in ZnO film on sapphire substrate with a GaN buffer layer grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy,” Microelectron. J.39(12), 1542–1544 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the layer structures of samples A to D ((a) to (d), respectively) used in this work.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-magnification front view ((a), (c), (e), and (g)) and side view ((b), (d), (f), and (h)) SEM images of samples A to D, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of samples A to D ((a) to (d), respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) XRD ω-2θ spectra of samples A to D. (b) Normalized XRC results of samples A to D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PL spectra as a function of temperature of samples A to D ((a) to (d), respectively).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated PL intensity ratio and PL peak positions of the samples as functions of temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Room-temperature FWHM PL intensity (black with solid line) and grain sizes from XRD measurements (red with dashed line) of the samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TEM images of samples A to D ((a) to (d), respectively).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

HRTEM images of samples A to D ((a) to (d), respectively).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Hierarchical thermal annealing and growth parameters of Samples A, B, C, and D

Tables Icon

Table 2 Peak position, FWHM, grain size, strain, stress, and lattice constant of the samples obtained by XRD measurements and theory calculations

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D= λ βcosθ .
a= d hkl 4 3 ( h 2 +hk+ k 2 )+ l 2 ( a c ) 2 ,
a c = 8 3 .
σ=453.6× 10 9 ( c c 0 c 0 ),
ε= β 4tanθ .

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