Abstract

NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by using a solvothermal approach. Under the excitation of a 980 nm laser, the 1.53 μm emission band of Er3+ ions in the NCs was enhanced by 6 times after codoping Ce3+ ions owing to the efficient energy transfer between Ce3+ and Er3+: 4I11/2 (Er3 +) + 2F5/2 (Ce3+) → 4I13/2 (Er3+) + 2F7/2 (Ce3+). By dispersing the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix, we constructed Er3+-doped polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers (EDPOWAs) and measured their performances. The measured optical gain of the EDPOWA doped with NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs was enhanced by ~2dB in comparison with that doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs. These results showed that NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs are promising candidates for building high gain EDPOWAs.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir20(26), 11763–11771 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express14(12), 5050–5054 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Sani, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Effect of Cerium codoping on Er:BaY2F8 crystals,” Opt. Express13(22), 8980–8992 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express14(12), 5050–5054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Sani, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Effect of Cerium codoping on Er:BaY2F8 crystals,” Opt. Express13(22), 8980–8992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir20(26), 11763–11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, B.

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, F.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batentschuk, M.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bo, S.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bo, S. H.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. C.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, C. J.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buddhudu, S.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. S.

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. P.

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Q.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. F.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, L. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorman, J. A.

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fukue, K.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebbink, G. A.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B.

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Higashihata, M.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. J.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huskens, J.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Jiang, T.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. A.

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, Y.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmanich, G.

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lam, M. H. W.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, E. N. Y.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, K. L.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. S.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. F.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. G.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. H.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W. Q.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, E.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mao, C. B.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y. B.

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mi, C. C.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miclea, P. T.

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagamatsu, K.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagaoka, S.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, N.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, R.

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osvet, A.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinna, L.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pun, E. Y. B.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

Roy, V. A. L.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sani, E.

Schweizer, S.

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Z. F.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. X.

Song, L.

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stouwdam, J. W.

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir20(26), 11763–11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stucky, G. D.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. D.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, T.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, K. C.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsung, C. K.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, D. T.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C.

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir20(26), 11763–11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasa, N. J.

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. F.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. S.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. M.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S. K.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. H.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. L.

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. X.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, Z.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, K.

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H. M.

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater.22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, C. K. Tsung, Z. Yang, G. D. Stucky, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, “Rare-earth-doped nanocrystalline titania microspheres emitting luminescence via energy transfer,” Adv. Mater.20(5), 903–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 665–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2)

W. Qin, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. Wang, and K. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3: Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater.15(24), 4604–4616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Yu, Z. F. Shan, D. Q. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. S. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem.17(16), 1597–1601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem.20(35), 7526–7529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (3)

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(18), 10333–10340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2278–2285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 19021–19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, and Z. J. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(41), 6545–6557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir20(26), 11763–11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, “Luminescence at 1.53 μm for a new Er3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(6), 1112–1117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater.27(2), 337–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Henke, B. Ahrens, J. A. Johnson, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Er-doped ZBLAN glasses for high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE7411, 74110E (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization data for double-doped NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs. (A) TEM image; (B) HRTEM image; (C) FFT pattern of a single nanocrystal; (D) histogram of the particle sizes obtained from TEM images of 400 NCs; (E) XRD pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The FTIR spectrum of the oleic acid-coated NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) UC emission spectra of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 10% Ce3+. (B) Plot of relative UC emission intensities vs. codoped Ce3 + ion concentrations. (C) DC emission spectra of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 10% Ce3 + . (D) Energy level diagrams of Yb3+, Er3+, and Ce3+ ions, and possible processes of populations and emissions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission decay curves of Er3+ in the NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs (excited at 980 nm, monitored at 544 nm and 658 nm corresponding to the 4S3/24I15/2 and 4F9/24I15/2 transitions, respectively).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Experimental setup for measuring the optical gain of the waveguide amplifier; (B) SEM image of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs-doped polymer waveguide amplifier; (C) Relative gain as a function of pump power (980 nm) with 0.1 mW input signal powers (1535 nm) in an 4 μm high, 8 μm wide and 1.3 cm long NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ and NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs-dispersed polymer waveguide.

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