Abstract

We report on Germanium on Glass solar cells realized by wafer bonding, layer splitting and epitaxial regrowth. We provide a detailed description of the layer transfer process and discuss the material characterization. The solar cells are fabricated and tested to extract the most significant figures of merit, evaluating their performance versus device area and operating temperature. The cells exhibit typical conversion efficiencies exceeding 2.4% under AM1.5 irradiation and a maximum efficiency of 3.7% under concentrated excitation. This Germanium on Glass approach is promising in terms of added flexibility in multi-junction engineering and allows a significant cost reduction thanks to the re-usability of the Ge substrates.

© 2013 OSA

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2010 (3)

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, K. Shiu, J. D. Zimmerman, C. K. Renshaw, and S. R. Forrest, “Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(10), 101107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express16(15), 11513–11518 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Mason, “Manufacturing technology: fabrication innovations,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 281–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, and H. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Posthuma, J. Van der Heide, G. Flamand, and J. Poortmans, “Emitter formation and contact realization by diffusion for germanium photovoltaic devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.54(5), 1210–1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, R. Scholz, M. Reiche, U. Gösele, and J. C. Woo, “Characteristics of germanium-on-insulators fabricated by wafer bonding and hydrogen-induced layer splitting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(11), 8565–8570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Taguchi, T. Soga, and T. Jimbo, “Epitaxial lift-off process for GaAs solar cell on Si substrate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells85, 85–89 (2005).

2004 (2)

G. Taraschi, A. J. Pitera, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator: review of wafer bonding fabrication techniques,” Solid-State Electron.48(8), 1297–1305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Min, Y. Joo, and O. Song, “Effects of wafer cleaning and annealing on glass/silicon wafer direct bonding,” J. Electron. Packag.126(1), 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Bitnar, “Silicon, germanium and silicon/germanium photocells for thermophotovoltaics applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(5), S221–S227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. M. Zahler, C. G. Ahn, S. Zaghi, H. A. Atwater, C. Chu, and P. Iles, “Ge layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films403-404, 558–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. B. Bergmann, T. J. Rinke, T. A. Wagner, and J. H. Werner, “Thin film solar cells on glass based on the transfer of monocrystalline Si films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells65(1-4), 355–361 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Plößl and G. Krauter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng.25(1-2), 1–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Yazawa, K. Tamura, S. Watahiki, T. Kitatani, J. Minemura, and T. Warabisako, “GaInP single-junction and GaInP/GaAs two-junction thin-film solar cell structures by epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells50(1-4), 229–235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. P. Malta, J. B. Posthill, R. J. Markunas, and T. P. Humphreys, “Low defect density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(7), 844–846 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon‐on‐insulator,” J. Appl. Phys.64(10), 4943–4950 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. People, “Physics and applications of GexSi1−x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1696–1710 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Konagai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Takahashi, “High efficiency GaAs thin film solar cells by peeled film technology,” J. Cryst. Growth45, 277–280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in single-crystal germanium and silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev.99(4), 1151–1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, A. C.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. G.

J. M. Zahler, C. G. Ahn, S. Zaghi, H. A. Atwater, C. Chu, and P. Iles, “Ge layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films403-404, 558–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andre, C. L.

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Archer, M. J.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, and H. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Zahler, C. G. Ahn, S. Zaghi, H. A. Atwater, C. Chu, and P. Iles, “Ge layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films403-404, 558–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, R. B.

R. B. Bergmann, T. J. Rinke, T. A. Wagner, and J. H. Werner, “Thin film solar cells on glass based on the transfer of monocrystalline Si films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells65(1-4), 355–361 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bitnar, B.

B. Bitnar, “Silicon, germanium and silicon/germanium photocells for thermophotovoltaics applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(5), S221–S227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boca, A.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brys, C.

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bushari, D.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cape, J. A.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Caviglia, A.

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon‐on‐insulator,” J. Appl. Phys.64(10), 4943–4950 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y.

Y. Chao, R. Scholz, M. Reiche, U. Gösele, and J. C. Woo, “Characteristics of germanium-on-insulators fabricated by wafer bonding and hydrogen-induced layer splitting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(11), 8565–8570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chrastina, D.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.

J. M. Zahler, C. G. Ahn, S. Zaghi, H. A. Atwater, C. Chu, and P. Iles, “Ge layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films403-404, 558–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. V.

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dash, W. C.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in single-crystal germanium and silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev.99(4), 1151–1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbelaere, P. D.

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Duda, A.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edmondson, K. M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C. M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Taraschi, A. J. Pitera, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator: review of wafer bonding fabrication techniques,” Solid-State Electron.48(8), 1297–1305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, G.

N. E. Posthuma, J. Van der Heide, G. Flamand, and J. Poortmans, “Emitter formation and contact realization by diffusion for germanium photovoltaic devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.54(5), 1210–1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

K. Lee, K. Shiu, J. D. Zimmerman, C. K. Renshaw, and S. R. Forrest, “Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(10), 101107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fraas, L. M.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D. J.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galluzzi, F.

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geisz, J. F.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ginige, R.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, G.

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon‐on‐insulator,” J. Appl. Phys.64(10), 4943–4950 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

Y. Chao, R. Scholz, M. Reiche, U. Gösele, and J. C. Woo, “Characteristics of germanium-on-insulators fabricated by wafer bonding and hydrogen-induced layer splitting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(11), 8565–8570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hilgarth, J.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, T. P.

D. P. Malta, J. B. Posthill, R. J. Markunas, and T. P. Humphreys, “Low defect density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(7), 844–846 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iles, P.

J. M. Zahler, C. G. Ahn, S. Zaghi, H. A. Atwater, C. Chu, and P. Iles, “Ge layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films403-404, 558–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, T.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

H. Taguchi, T. Soga, and T. Jimbo, “Epitaxial lift-off process for GaAs solar cell on Si substrate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells85, 85–89 (2005).

Jones, K. M.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y.

H. Min, Y. Joo, and O. Song, “Effects of wafer cleaning and annealing on glass/silicon wafer direct bonding,” J. Electron. Packag.126(1), 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karam, N. H.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, R. R.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitatani, T.

Y. Yazawa, K. Tamura, S. Watahiki, T. Kitatani, J. Minemura, and T. Warabisako, “GaInP single-junction and GaInP/GaAs two-junction thin-film solar cell structures by epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells50(1-4), 229–235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konagai, M.

M. Konagai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Takahashi, “High efficiency GaAs thin film solar cells by peeled film technology,” J. Cryst. Growth45, 277–280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Krauter, G.

A. Plößl and G. Krauter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng.25(1-2), 1–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuryla, M. S.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ladous, C.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, and H. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Shiu, J. D. Zimmerman, C. K. Renshaw, and S. R. Forrest, “Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(10), 101107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Malta, D. P.

D. P. Malta, J. B. Posthill, R. J. Markunas, and T. P. Humphreys, “Low defect density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(7), 844–846 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Markunas, R. J.

D. P. Malta, J. B. Posthill, R. J. Markunas, and T. P. Humphreys, “Low defect density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(7), 844–846 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mason, N.

N. Mason, “Manufacturing technology: fabrication innovations,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 281–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maszara, W. P.

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon‐on‐insulator,” J. Appl. Phys.64(10), 4943–4950 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McKitterick, J. B.

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon‐on‐insulator,” J. Appl. Phys.64(10), 4943–4950 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, P. S.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mesropian, S.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, H.

H. Min, Y. Joo, and O. Song, “Effects of wafer cleaning and annealing on glass/silicon wafer direct bonding,” J. Electron. Packag.126(1), 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minemura, J.

Y. Yazawa, K. Tamura, S. Watahiki, T. Kitatani, J. Minemura, and T. Warabisako, “GaInP single-junction and GaInP/GaAs two-junction thin-film solar cell structures by epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells50(1-4), 229–235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Modreanu, M.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T. E.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Newman, F. D.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, and H. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newman, R.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in single-crystal germanium and silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev.99(4), 1151–1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Norman, A. G.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olavarria, W. J.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, M.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Partain, L. D.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

People, R.

R. People, “Physics and applications of GexSi1−x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1696–1710 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pinnington, T.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, and H. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitera, A. J.

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Taraschi, A. J. Pitera, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator: review of wafer bonding fabrication techniques,” Solid-State Electron.48(8), 1297–1305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plößl, A.

A. Plößl and G. Krauter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng.25(1-2), 1–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pollentier, I.

P. Demeester, I. Pollentier, P. D. Dobbelaere, C. Brys, and P. V. Daele, “Epitaxial lift-off and its applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(6), 1124–1135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

N. E. Posthuma, J. Van der Heide, G. Flamand, and J. Poortmans, “Emitter formation and contact realization by diffusion for germanium photovoltaic devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.54(5), 1210–1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Posthill, J. B.

D. P. Malta, J. B. Posthill, R. J. Markunas, and T. P. Humphreys, “Low defect density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(7), 844–846 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Posthuma, N. E.

N. E. Posthuma, J. Van der Heide, G. Flamand, and J. Poortmans, “Emitter formation and contact realization by diffusion for germanium photovoltaic devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.54(5), 1210–1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ransom, R. A.

L. D. Partain, M. S. Kuryla, R. E. Weiss, R. A. Ransom, P. S. McLeod, L. M. Fraas, and J. A. Cape, “26.1% solar cell efficiency for Ge mechanically stacked under GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.62(7), 3010–3015 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, M.

Y. Chao, R. Scholz, M. Reiche, U. Gösele, and J. C. Woo, “Characteristics of germanium-on-insulators fabricated by wafer bonding and hydrogen-induced layer splitting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(11), 8565–8570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renshaw, C. K.

K. Lee, K. Shiu, J. D. Zimmerman, C. K. Renshaw, and S. R. Forrest, “Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(10), 101107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, S. A.

C. L. Andre, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 014502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, T. J.

R. B. Bergmann, T. J. Rinke, T. A. Wagner, and J. H. Werner, “Thin film solar cells on glass based on the transfer of monocrystalline Si films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells65(1-4), 355–361 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

J. F. Geisz, D. J. Friedman, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, W. J. Olavarria, T. E. Moriarty, J. T. Kiehl, M. J. Romero, A. G. Norman, and K. M. Jones, “40.8% efficient inverted triple-junction solar cell with two independently metamorphic junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

Y. Chao, R. Scholz, M. Reiche, U. Gösele, and J. C. Woo, “Characteristics of germanium-on-insulators fabricated by wafer bonding and hydrogen-induced layer splitting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(11), 8565–8570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, R. A.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, K.

K. Lee, K. Shiu, J. D. Zimmerman, C. K. Renshaw, and S. R. Forrest, “Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(10), 101107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soga, T.

H. Taguchi, T. Soga, and T. Jimbo, “Epitaxial lift-off process for GaAs solar cell on Si substrate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells85, 85–89 (2005).

Song, O.

H. Min, Y. Joo, and O. Song, “Effects of wafer cleaning and annealing on glass/silicon wafer direct bonding,” J. Electron. Packag.126(1), 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorianello, V.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, and M. Palmer, “Germanium on Glass: a novel platform for light sensing devices,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 686–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, M.

M. Konagai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Takahashi, “High efficiency GaAs thin film solar cells by peeled film technology,” J. Cryst. Growth45, 277–280 (1978).
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H. Taguchi, T. Soga, and T. Jimbo, “Epitaxial lift-off process for GaAs solar cell on Si substrate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells85, 85–89 (2005).

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, K. M. Edmondson, D. Bushari, J. Yen, R. A. Sherif, H. A. Atwater, and N. H. Karam, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow of GoG cell fabrication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GoG platform (a), GoG solar cell wafer (b), typical sample comprising several cells (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of (a) a GoG wafer and zoomed-in images of specific portions: (b) majority of the wafer area, (c) center portion, (d) edge portion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross section TEM of a GOG sample, (b) enlargement of the glass-Ge interface, (c) diffraction pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIMS showing B and P concentration profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

I-V characteristics of the best cells (highest conversion efficiency) in dark and under AM1.5. GoG (red solid lines) and test Ge-on-Ge (blue dotted lines) cells are compared. The corresponding relevant parameters are summarized in the inset. The area of the cells is 0.088cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AM1.5 characteristics of the GoG cell with highest conversion efficiency. The area of the cell is 0.03cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

External quantum efficiency of the most efficient GoG cell.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

GoG open circuit voltage (blue) and conversion efficiency (red) versus cell area.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

GoG relative change of efficiency (red) and open circuit voltage (blue) versus temperature.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

GoG I-V characteristics for various solar irradiation, from 1 to 12.7 suns.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

GoG open circuit voltage and short circuit current for irradiation from 1 to 12.7 suns.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

GoG conversion efficiency (red) and fill factor (blue) versus solar irradiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance of Ge-on-Ge and GoG samples (area = 0.088cm2, T = 25°C, I = 100mW/cm2)

Metrics