Abstract

Imaging micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate the materials physics of radiation damage in congruent LiNbO3 as a result of high-energy (~MeV) He+ irradiation. This study uses a scanning confocal microscope for high-resolution three-dimensional micro-Raman imaging along with reflection optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tight optical excitation beam in the Raman system allows spatial mapping of the Raman spectra both laterally and normal to the irradiation axis with ≤1 μm resolution. Point defects and compositional changes after irradiation and surface deformation including blistering and microstress are observed in the stopping region. We demonstrate that the probed area of the damaged region is effectively “expanded” by a beveled geometry, formed through off-angle polishing of a crystal facet; this technique enables higher-resolution probing of the ion-induced changes in the Raman spectra and imaging of dislocation line defects that are otherwise inaccessible by conventional probing (depth and edge scan). Two-dimensional (2D) Raman imaging is also used to determine the defect uniformity across an irradiated sample and to examine the damage on a sample with patterned implantation. The effects of different He+ doses and energies, together with post-irradiation treatments such as annealing, are also discussed.

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2011 (1)

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi C1(11), 3126–3129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “A Raman study of single-crystal congruent lithium niobate following electric-field repoling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 691–696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. S. Dobal and R. S. Katiyar, “Studies on ferroelectric perovskites and Bi-layered compounds using micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(6), 405–423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3199–3202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “The composition dependence of the Raman spectrum and new assignment of the phonons in LiNbO3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(44), 9687–9693 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

I. De Wolf, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “Strain profiles in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3 crystals,” Mater. Lett.27(1–2), 17–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avrahami and E. Zolotoyabko, “Structural modifications in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B120(1–4), 84–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, and S. P. Dooley, “Cross-sectional Raman microscopy of MeV implanted diamond,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B106(1–4), 641–645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Paz-Pujalt and D. D. Tuschel, “Depth profiling of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(26), 3411–3413 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

B.-U. Chen and A. C. Pastor, “Elimination of Li2O out-diffusion waveguide in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.30(11), 570–571 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Primak, “Expansion, crazing and exfoliation of lithium niobate on ion bombardment and comparison results for sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 4927–4933 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amaral, L.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Avrahami, Y.

Y. Avrahami and E. Zolotoyabko, “Structural modifications in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B120(1–4), 84–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “Strain profiles in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3 crystals,” Mater. Lett.27(1–2), 17–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, H.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, S.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bao, W. Z.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourson, P.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “The composition dependence of the Raman spectrum and new assignment of the phonons in LiNbO3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(44), 9687–9693 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calizo, I.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S.-W.

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3199–3202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-U.

B.-U. Chen and A. C. Pastor, “Elimination of Li2O out-diffusion waveguide in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.30(11), 570–571 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, M. F.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Wolf, I.

I. De Wolf, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Djukic, D.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dobal, P. S.

P. S. Dobal and R. S. Katiyar, “Studies on ferroelectric perovskites and Bi-layered compounds using micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(6), 405–423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, S. P.

D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, and S. P. Dooley, “Cross-sectional Raman microscopy of MeV implanted diamond,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B106(1–4), 641–645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, K.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “A Raman study of single-crystal congruent lithium niobate following electric-field repoling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 691–696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fichtner, P. F. P.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, M. D.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “The composition dependence of the Raman spectrum and new assignment of the phonons in LiNbO3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(44), 9687–9693 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaathon, O.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galinetto, P.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gischkat, T.

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, H.

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, I. P.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, D. N.

D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, and S. P. Dooley, “Cross-sectional Raman microscopy of MeV implanted diamond,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B106(1–4), 641–645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Katiyar, R. S.

P. S. Dobal and R. S. Katiyar, “Studies on ferroelectric perovskites and Bi-layered compounds using micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(6), 405–423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-I.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinder, R.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klauer, S.

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kling, A.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kostritskii, S. M.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi C1(11), 3126–3129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lau, C. N.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laulicht, B.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Littlewood, S. D.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “A Raman study of single-crystal congruent lithium niobate following electric-field repoling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 691–696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malovichko, G.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “The composition dependence of the Raman spectrum and new assignment of the phonons in LiNbO3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(44), 9687–9693 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marinone, M.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McPhail, D. S.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T. H.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “Strain profiles in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3 crystals,” Mater. Lett.27(1–2), 17–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miao, F.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morbiato, A.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi C1(11), 3126–3129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Musolino, M.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, I.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. W.

D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, and S. P. Dooley, “Cross-sectional Raman microscopy of MeV implanted diamond,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B106(1–4), 641–645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ofan, A.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3199–3202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, A. C.

B.-U. Chen and A. C. Pastor, “Elimination of Li2O out-diffusion waveguide in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.30(11), 570–571 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Paz-Pujalt, G. R.

G. R. Paz-Pujalt and D. D. Tuschel, “Depth profiling of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(26), 3411–3413 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peisl, J.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “Strain profiles in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3 crystals,” Mater. Lett.27(1–2), 17–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, and S. P. Dooley, “Cross-sectional Raman microscopy of MeV implanted diamond,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B106(1–4), 641–645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, “Expansion, crazing and exfoliation of lithium niobate on ion bombardment and comparison results for sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 4927–4933 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Radziewicz, D.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3199–3202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ridah, A.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “The composition dependence of the Raman spectrum and new assignment of the phonons in LiNbO3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(44), 9687–9693 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R.

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R. D.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R. M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samoggia, G.

P. Galinetto, M. Marinone, D. Grando, G. Samoggia, F. Caccavale, A. Morbiato, and M. Musolino, “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(3), 380–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, W.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “Strain profiles in He-implanted waveguide layers of LiNbO3 crystals,” Mater. Lett.27(1–2), 17–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schrempel, F.

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sciana, B.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. G.

J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “A Raman study of single-crystal congruent lithium niobate following electric-field repoling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 691–696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J. C.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sones, C. L.

J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “A Raman study of single-crystal congruent lithium niobate following electric-field repoling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 691–696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spanier, J. E.

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Spanier, M. Levy, I. P. Herman, R. M. Osgood, and A. S. Bhalla, “Single-crystal, mesoscopic films of lead zinc niobate-lead titanate: Formation and micro-Raman analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(10), 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srnanek, R.

R. Srnanek, R. Kinder, B. Sciana, D. Radziewicz, D. S. McPhail, S. D. Littlewood, and I. Novotny, “Determination of doping profiles on bevelled GaAs structures by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci.177(1–2), 139–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, P. D.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3199–3202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tuschel, D. D.

G. R. Paz-Pujalt and D. D. Tuschel, “Depth profiling of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(26), 3411–3413 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanamurthy, L.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and R. M. Osgood, “Origin of highly spatially selective etching in deeply implanted complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D.

A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ofan, L. Zhang, O. Gaathon, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Spherical solid He nanometer bubbles in an anisotropic complex oxide,” Phys. Rev. B82(10), 104113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wesch, W.

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, “Ion beam enhanced etching of LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B250(1–2), 164–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wesselmann, M.

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

U. Schlarb, S. Klauer, M. Wesselmann, K. Betzler, and M. Wöhlecke, “Determination of the Li/Nb ratio in lithium niobate by means of birefringence and Raman measurements,” Appl. Phys., A Solids Surf.56(4), 311–315 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. S.

S. Banerjee, D.-I. Kim, R. D. Robinson, I. P. Herman, Y. Mao, and S. S. Wong, “Observation of Fano asymmetry in Raman spectra of SrTiO3 and CaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite nanocubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zawislak, F.

A. Kling, M. F. da Silva, J. C. Soares, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Amaral, and F. Zawislak, “Defect evolution and characterization in He-implanted LiNbO3,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B175–177(0), 394–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

J. E. Spanier, R. Robinson, F. Zhang, S.-W. Chan, and I. P. Herman, “Size-dependent properties of CeO2-y nanoparticles as studied by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B64(24), 245407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y. Kong, J. Xu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Ilmenite-like stacking defect in nonstoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by Raman scattering spectra,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4410–4414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

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A. Ofan, O. Gaathon, L. Zhang, K. Evans-Lutterodt, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, Y. Zhu, D. Welch, and R. M. Osgood, “Twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B83(6), 064104 (2011).
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