Abstract

The primary objective of this study is the development of transparent thin film materials in the IR enabling strong infrared absorption of organic compounds in the vicinity of metal nanoparticles by the surface plasmon effect. For developing these optical micro-sensors, hetero-structures combining gold nanoparticles and chalcogenide planar waveguides are fabricated and adequately characterized. Single As2S3 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous chalcogenide thin films are prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. For the fabrication of gold nanoparticles on a chalcogenide planar waveguide, direct current sputtering is employed. Fabricated single layers or hetero-structures are characterized using various techniques to investigate the influence of deposition parameters. The nanoparticles of gold are functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 4-nitrothiophenol. Finally, the surface enhanced infrared absorption spectra of 4-nitrothiophenol self-assembled on fabricated Au/Ge-Sb-Se thin films hetero-structures are measured and analyzed. This optical component presents a ~24 enhancement factor for the detection of NO2 symmetric stretching vibration band of 4-nitrothiophenol at 1336 cm−1.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wanga, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloys Compd.548, 155–160 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

D. C. Sati, A. Kovalskiy, R. Golovchak, and H. Jain, “Structure of SbxGe40-xSe60 glasses around 2.67 average coordination number,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(2), 163–167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lahiri, S. Bagavathiappan, T. Jayakumar, and J. Philip, “Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review,” Infrared Phys. Technol.55(4), 221–235 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, “Hybrid nanoparticle-microcavity-based plasmonic nanosensors with improved detection resolution and extended remote-sensing ability,” Nat. Commun3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

2011 (7)

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Baeck, T. H. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and M. H. Cho, “Phase transformation through metastable structures in atomically controlled Se/Sb multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(27), 13462–13470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Topology and chemical order in AsxGexSe1-2x glasses: a high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3454–3460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

C. Monat, M. Spurny, C. Grillet, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Bulla, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Third-harmonic generation in slow-light chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2818–2820 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, O. Lyutakov, V. Rybka, Z. Kolská, and V. Svorčík, “Properties of gold nanostructures sputtered on glass,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Tan, M. E. Solmaz, J. Gardner, R. Atkins, and C. Madsen, “Optical characterization of a-As2S3 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033524 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

J. M. Delgado, J. M. Orts, and A. Rodes, “A comparison between chemical and sputtering methods for preparing thin-film silver electrodes for in situ ATR-SEIRAS studies,” Electrochim. Acta52(14), 4605–4613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta-Bioenergetics1767(9), 1073–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Shepherd and M. G. Walsh, “Infrared spectroscopy - enabling an evidence-based diagnostic surveillance approach to agricultural and environmental management in developing countries,” J. Near Infrared Spec.15(2), 1–19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mendes, K. L. Christman, P. Parthasarathy, E. Schopf, J. Ouyang, Y. Yang, J. A. Preece, H. D. Maynard, Y. Chen, and J. F. Stoddart, “Electrochemically controllable conjugation of proteins on surfaces,” Bioconjug. Chem.18(6), 1919–1923 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, B. Campbell, B. Ferreira, and S. Martin, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure of the glasses in the system Ge0.23Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids66(10), 1788–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

Z. G. Ivanova, E. Cernoskova, V. S. Vassilev, and S. V. Boycheva, “Thermomechanical and structural characterization of GeSe2–Sb2Se3–ZnSe glasses,” Mater. Lett.57(5-6), 1025–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. J. Zhang and T. Imae, “Study of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy - 1. Dependence of the enhancement on thickness of metal island films and structure of chemisorbed molecules,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.233(1), 99–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Němec, B. Frumarova, and M. Frumar, “Structure and properties of the pure and Pr3+-doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids270(1-3), 137–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. V. Porezag, and M. R. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B60(22), R14985(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, R. Callaerts, R. Mertens, and M. Vlcek, “Optical properties of amorphous As-Se and Ge-As-Se thin films,” Mater. Lett.39(2), 122–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wilson and H. S. Tapp, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for food analysis: recent new applications and relevant developments in sample presentation methods,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem.18, 85–93 (1999).

1997 (1)

M. Osawa, “Dynamic processes in electrochemical reactions studied by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS),” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.70(12), 2861–2880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Osawa and M. Ikeda, “Surface-enhanced infrared absorption of p-nitrobenzoic acid deposited on silver island films: contributions of electromagnetic and chemical mechanisms,” J. Phys. Chem.95(24), 9914–9919 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

T. Kamata, A. Kato, J. Umemura, and T. Takenaka, “Intensity enhancement of infrared attenuated total reflection spectra of stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers with evaporated silver island films,” Langmuir3(6), 1150–1154 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugai, “Stochastic random network model in Ge and Si chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B35(3), 1345–1361 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids59–60, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angel, J. A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Aroca, D. J. Ross, and C. Domingo, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.58(11), 324–338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. C. Tan, M. E. Solmaz, J. Gardner, R. Atkins, and C. Madsen, “Optical characterization of a-As2S3 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033524 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

Baeck, J. H.

J. H. Baeck, T. H. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and M. H. Cho, “Phase transformation through metastable structures in atomically controlled Se/Sb multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(27), 13462–13470 (2011).
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B. B. Lahiri, S. Bagavathiappan, T. Jayakumar, and J. Philip, “Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review,” Infrared Phys. Technol.55(4), 221–235 (2012).
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A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta-Bioenergetics1767(9), 1073–1101 (2007).
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J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohnke, O.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosc, D.

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boukerma, K.

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

Boussard-Pledel, C.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

Boycheva, S. V.

Z. G. Ivanova, E. Cernoskova, V. S. Vassilev, and S. V. Boycheva, “Thermomechanical and structural characterization of GeSe2–Sb2Se3–ZnSe glasses,” Mater. Lett.57(5-6), 1025–1028 (2003).
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Brandily, M.-L.

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

Brandily-Anne, M.-L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Briley, A.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. V. Porezag, and M. R. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B60(22), R14985(1999).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Bureau, B.

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
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Campbell, B.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, B. Campbell, B. Ferreira, and S. Martin, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure of the glasses in the system Ge0.23Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids66(10), 1788–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carabe, J.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
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L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, B. Campbell, B. Ferreira, and S. Martin, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure of the glasses in the system Ge0.23Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids66(10), 1788–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cernoskova, E.

Z. G. Ivanova, E. Cernoskova, V. S. Vassilev, and S. V. Boycheva, “Thermomechanical and structural characterization of GeSe2–Sb2Se3–ZnSe glasses,” Mater. Lett.57(5-6), 1025–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charpentier, F.

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charrier, J.

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wanga, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloys Compd.548, 155–160 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mendes, K. L. Christman, P. Parthasarathy, E. Schopf, J. Ouyang, Y. Yang, J. A. Preece, H. D. Maynard, Y. Chen, and J. F. Stoddart, “Electrochemically controllable conjugation of proteins on surfaces,” Bioconjug. Chem.18(6), 1919–1923 (2007).
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J. H. Baeck, T. H. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and M. H. Cho, “Phase transformation through metastable structures in atomically controlled Se/Sb multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(27), 13462–13470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

J. H. Baeck, T. H. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and M. H. Cho, “Phase transformation through metastable structures in atomically controlled Se/Sb multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(27), 13462–13470 (2011).
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P. M. Mendes, K. L. Christman, P. Parthasarathy, E. Schopf, J. Ouyang, Y. Yang, J. A. Preece, H. D. Maynard, Y. Chen, and J. F. Stoddart, “Electrochemically controllable conjugation of proteins on surfaces,” Bioconjug. Chem.18(6), 1919–1923 (2007).
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Colas, F.

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compère, C.

F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Concha, A.

R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wanga, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloys Compd.548, 155–160 (2013).
[CrossRef]

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
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Delaizir, G.

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
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Delgado, J. M.

J. M. Delgado, J. M. Orts, and A. Rodes, “A comparison between chemical and sputtering methods for preparing thin-film silver electrodes for in situ ATR-SEIRAS studies,” Electrochim. Acta52(14), 4605–4613 (2007).
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F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

Domingo, C.

R. F. Aroca, D. J. Ross, and C. Domingo, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.58(11), 324–338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dussauze, M.

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
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Duverger, C.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Esparza, R.

R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Espejo, R.

R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, B.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, B. Campbell, B. Ferreira, and S. Martin, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure of the glasses in the system Ge0.23Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids66(10), 1788–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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P. Němec, B. Frumarova, and M. Frumar, “Structure and properties of the pure and Pr3+-doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids270(1-3), 137–146 (2000).
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Frumarova, B.

P. Němec, B. Frumarova, and M. Frumar, “Structure and properties of the pure and Pr3+-doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids270(1-3), 137–146 (2000).
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Fukunaga, T.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids59–60, 883–886 (1983).
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García-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, J.

W. C. Tan, M. E. Solmaz, J. Gardner, R. Atkins, and C. Madsen, “Optical characterization of a-As2S3 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033524 (2010).
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Golovchak, R.

D. C. Sati, A. Kovalskiy, R. Golovchak, and H. Jain, “Structure of SbxGe40-xSe60 glasses around 2.67 average coordination number,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(2), 163–167 (2012).
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R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Topology and chemical order in AsxGexSe1-2x glasses: a high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3454–3460 (2011).
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Gonzalez-Leal, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Grossman, S.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. V. Porezag, and M. R. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B60(22), R14985(1999).
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V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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J. H. Baeck, T. H. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and M. H. Cho, “Phase transformation through metastable structures in atomically controlled Se/Sb multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(27), 13462–13470 (2011).
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Kirtley, J. R.

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(3), 201–204 (1980).
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D. C. Sati, A. Kovalskiy, R. Golovchak, and H. Jain, “Structure of SbxGe40-xSe60 glasses around 2.67 average coordination number,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(2), 163–167 (2012).
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R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Topology and chemical order in AsxGexSe1-2x glasses: a high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3454–3460 (2011).
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M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, “Hybrid nanoparticle-microcavity-based plasmonic nanosensors with improved detection resolution and extended remote-sensing ability,” Nat. Commun3, 1108 (2012).
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J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65(x=0,5) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(7), 073110 (2008).
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R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Lyutakov, O.

J. Siegel, O. Lyutakov, V. Rybka, Z. Kolská, and V. Svorčík, “Properties of gold nanostructures sputtered on glass,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 96 (2011).
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J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, A. Ledesma, A. M. Bernal-Oliva, R. Prieto-Alcon, E. Marquez, J. A. Angel, and J. Carabe, “Optical properties of thin-film ternary Ge10As15Se75 chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Lett.39(4), 232–239 (1999).
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M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
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J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

Monat, C.

Mora, F.

R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
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R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
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V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
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R. C. Munoz, G. Vidal, M. Mulsow, J. G. Lisoni, C. Arenas, A. Concha, F. Mora, R. Espejo, G. Kremer, L. Moraga, R. Esparza, and P. Haberle, “Surface roughness and surface-induced resistivity of gold films on mica: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(7), 4686–4697 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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F. Verger, T. Pain, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Colas, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, C. Compère, M. Guilloux-Viry, S. Deputier, A. Perrin, and J. P. Guin, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using gold nanoparticles on As2S3 glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.175, 142–148 (2012).

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, “Hybrid nanoparticle-microcavity-based plasmonic nanosensors with improved detection resolution and extended remote-sensing ability,” Nat. Commun3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem.173, 468–476 (2012).

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: A comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Charpentier, M. Dussauze, M. Cathelinaud, G. Delaizir, E. I. Kamitsos, J. L. Adam, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Aging process of photosensitive chalcogenide films deposited by electron beam deposition,” J. Alloys Compd.509(27), 7330–7336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission curve of As2S3 sputtered thin film between 400 and 2000 nm. Insets show SEM pictures of As2S3 sputtered thin film after 48 hours ageing: a microcrystal on the film surface (a), film cross-section of about 1.5μm thickness (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM cross-section pictures of Ge25Sb10Se65 thin films: 5.10−3 mbar, 40 W (a), 5.10−2 mbar, 40 W (b) and 5.10−3 mbar, 60 W (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index dispersion curves of Ge25Sb10Se65 thin films determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman scattering spectra of Ge-(Sb)-Se bulk glasses (a, left) and sputtered thin films (b, right). Note that chemical compositions shown on left panel are theoretical ones.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XPS data of Ge25Sb10Se65 sputtered films under 5.10−3 and 5.10−2 mbars of Ar: a) and b) curve fitting of Ge3d and Sb4d core level spectra; c and d) curve fitting of Sb3d core level spectra; e and f) curve fitting of Se3d core level spectra of sputtered films under 5.10−3 and 5.10−2 mbars of Ar, respectively; g) Se3d core level spectra and h) Ge3d and Sb4d core level spectra for normal, 45°, 60° and 70° take-off angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM pictures (x 100 000) of gold films sputtered on Ge25Sb10Se65 sputtered film: 1000 V, 0.44 mA, 15 min. (a), 5 min. (b), 2 min. (c).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

X-ray reflectometry experimental and simulated data of Ge29.6Sb9.4Se61.0 film (inset) and gold thin film deposited by DC sputtering on Ge29.6Sb9.4Se61.0 film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) AFM picture of the Ge29.6Sb9.4Se61.0 thin film surface after gold deposition of nanoparticles (1000 V, 0.44 mA, 2 min); b) Optical microscopy picture of sputtered gold strips obtained by lift-off photolithography technique; c) Schematic representation of SEIRA optical component and expected configuration of 4-nitrothiophenol on gold nanoparticles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a) Infrared spectrum of randomly oriented 4-nitrothiophenol on mid-IR transparent substrate and b) in inset: infrared transmission spectra of 4-nitrothiophenol monolayers on sputtered gold island (6.10−2 mbar, 1200 V, 0.62 mA, 70 s) onto Ge25Sb10Se65 thin films deposited on various substrates (Ge, Ga5Ge20Sb10S65, ZnS).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chemical composition ( ± 0.5 at. %) of As2S3 bulk glass and sputtered thin film, refractive index ( ± 0.0005) of As2S3 sputtered thin film of about 1.5 µm thickness and corresponding Cauchy dispersion relation.

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Table 2 RF sputtering parameters, chemical composition and thicknesses of Ge25Sb10Se65 thin films.

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Table 3 Binding energy (BE, eV), full width at half maximum (FWHM, eV) and relative area (%) of the different components used for the fitting of Se 3d5/2, Ge 3d5/2 and Sb 4d5/2, Sb 3d5/2 core level spectra; [Se/(Ge + Sb)] and [Ge/Sb] composition ratio obtained experimentally by XPS compared to those obtained by EDS analysis.

Tables Icon

Table 4 DC sputtering parameters and thicknesses of gold films by AFM.

Equations (3)

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n( λ ) = A + B/λ² + C/ λ 4  ,
V = R.I.
ρ = l/R.l/s,

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